Tales and ebook
30-04-2014, 16:45PrintFairy tales „customer, report, news“) are prose texts which tell about wondrous occurrences. Fairy tales are a significant and very old text type in the verbal tradition (Oral) and appear in all societies. In contrast to the orally traditional and anonymous national fairy tale stands the form of the art fairy tale whose author is known. In the German-speaking space the concept Fairy tale was stamped in particular by the collection of the brothers Grimm.
As opposed to the legend and legend fairy tales are fictitious and her action is neither temporal nor is fixed locally. Indeed, the demarcation is blurred above all between mythological legend and fairy tale, both types are related closely. A known example for this is the fairy tale Sleeping Beauty who is looked possibly by Friedrich Panzer as fantastic‚ defused‘ version of the ebook legend from the vicinity of the Nibelungensage. Besides, one can look at the Waberlohe as to the rose hedge trivialises and the Nornen as to fairies played down.
Among the rest, typically for fairy tale the appearance of fantastic elements is in the form of speaking ones and how people to acting animals, from magics with the help of witches or magicians, from giants and dwarfs, minds and mythical creatures (unicorn, dragon etc.). After the written fixation of the national fairy tales a media diversification started (pictures, illustrations, translations, poststories, parodies, dramatisations, filmings, settings etc. usf.) which stepped now to the place of the verbal passing on. In this respect it is‚ rescue of the fairy tales possibly by the brothers Grimm though on the one hand welcome, puts but then this also to the verbal passing on of a mono-media text type an abrupt end.
Fairy tale research
The comparative fairy tale research was founded by the brothers Grimm and was continued by Theodor later in the 19th century. Antti Aarne categorised in 1910 the fairy tales after her essential narrative contents; from it there originated the harvest Thompson index common even today in the international narrative research. (Into German the abbreviation AaTh is often used to avoid mistakes with AT for old testament). The Russian philologist Vladimir Jakowlewitsch Propp made in 1928 with his strukturalistischen investigation about the morphology of the fairy tale an important contribution to the literature-scientific fairy tale research. Eleasar Meletinsky added to him important examination for the demarcation of fairy tale and myth ebooks.
A firm action structure forms the basis of all fairy tales, regardless of her contents. This structure fulfils certain functions which are connected with "archetypal" actors (hero, opponent, assistant etc.) and is already to be discovered in the antiquity ebook.
In younger time fairy tales are also examined with different theoretical attempts from the anthropology, Oral History, from different single disciplines, psychoanalysis among other things.
Well and Nastily are separated in the fairy tale sharply, mostly in the form of good and bad figures. Concerning the contents a hero who must pass discussions with good and bad, natural and supernatural forces is central. The hero is often a superficially weak figure like a child or the latest son. At the end of a fairy tale the good is extremely recompensed and this is punished nastily extremely. As examples for this a quotation from two best known fairy tales of the brothers Grimm.
Origin and early text fixation of the fairy tales
Fairy tales are very old and hand on as all the other literary forms in the history of mankind back; they can be classed after different types and be assigned as an experiment to different Zeitaltern. The magic fairy tales belong to the oldest fairy tales. They show narrative structures on how we know them also from antique Greek and Latin myth stories (god's legends and heroic legends) whose narrative material goes back also far before the use of the writing as a tradition way.
Much too simplifying theses like those of Benfey, the European fairy tales are of Indian origin, are valid as outdated, because identical fairy tale motives are found in extremely far auseinanderliegenden and to each other to quite foreign cultures. Just this fact is one of the most amusing observations in the fairy tale research. Carl Gustav Jung tried to explain with the acceptance of a „collective unconscious“ to the humanity.
As the first big European national fairy tale collector and the ebook is valid the Italian Basile whose collection Il Pentamerone appeared in the first half of the 17th century. Of course numerous motives of his fairy tales are also found in the fairy tales the fury. The similar is valid for the first bigger French national fairy tale collection of Charles Perrault from 1697 with the title Histoires ou contes you temps passé, avec moralités: contes de mA Mère l'Oye. Admittedly, both collections strongly carry the manuscript of her publishers, above all the Perraults. But also the national fairy tales of the brothers Grimm are also reworked linguistically and all other European fairy tale collections of the 19th century in the international succession the fury. There are absolutely untouched calm versions from verbal tradition only in the 20th century.
National fairy tales
With national fairy tale no certain originator can be ascertained. The verbal passing on was the exclusive for long time and is till this day the natural form of the tradition. The written tradition has also still cohad an effect since her beginnings on the traditional verbal narrative technique, because already in the Middle Ages fairy tales found entrance in the written literature. With the possibility of the letterpress since the end of the 15th century the written spreading has got naturally a bigger meaning. On account of the verbal narrative tradition national fairy tales appear in many partly very different variations which are the more numerous, the older and ever a fairy tale spreads - i.e. a combination same in the essentials of action units - is. Vice versa quite different fairy tales also point even in far narrative traditions distant of each other and about language boundaries away, conspicuously many common characteristics in the single action motives, that is in the smallest isolateable action units. This has led to the harvest Thompson index, an extensive list of fairy tale types and a systematic cataloguing of the action units. The fairy tale is therefore (as for example also the folk song) a literature form which knows neither originals nor imitations; even a concept like "change" covered to a fairy tale which resembles another, is ebook; the totality of the national fairy tale literature is steered in principle by the permutation of the action units, no concrete fairy tale X is "dependent" on another concrete fairy tale Y as the in writing handed down literature as a rule the case is. (In the poetry fist Goethe refers recognizably to the doll play of the doctor Faust, but the Arabian fairy tale of The fishermen and the mind is not a presentation of the German national fairy tale The mind in the bottle; both fairy tales use only one identical central action unity.)
German fairy tales
In Germany, primarily, the national fairy tale collection child fairy tale and house fairy tale of the brothers Grimm is associated with the concept Fairy tale, however, there are numerous other collections of German national fairy tales.
French fairy tales
In France the first fairy tale collection was put on in 1697 by Charles Perraults Histoires ou Contes you temps passé avec moralités and the expression (fairy stories) was stamped from which is derived English „fairy of valley“. The element of the Enchanting and splendid steps here already in the naming to the prelight. Nevertheless, these are not only magic beings (divine or diabolical origin) which make the fairytale world so fantastic, but are objects with magic effect, which the fairy tale heroes of big use or the Verzaubertwerden in an animal, a plant whose symbolic salary one can question. Likewise the fossilization plays every now and then a role which can be interpreted as deep-psychologically how redemptions by the tears of a compassionate person.
Indian fairy tales
The Indian fairy tales can look back at a very long and variform tradition. The about 2000 year old fairy tale collection called Panchatantra belongs to the most important Indian fairy tale collections. The Indologe Johannes Hertel has made important scientific contributions at the beginning of the 20th century for the development of the Panchatantra. The Panchatantra should partially have come into the narrative collection and fairy tale collection Tausendundeine night.
Other examples of European fairy tales
The Russian national fairy tales of Alexander Nikolajewitsch Afanassjew, the English fairy tales of Joseph and the Norwegian national fairy tales of Peter ebook.
Art fairy tales
With the art fairy tales it concerns deliberate creations of writers and authors. Sometimes they take up motives of the national fairy tale tradition, however, new fantastic miracle stories become most fictitious which remain linked with the national fairy tale, however, still by the aspect of the miraculous and unreal. Their contents are carried predominantly by the world view and the ideas of an individual person and are defeated by the influence of the literature currents. In the romanticism the art fairy tale reached an early high point and received determining impulses for his further development. In the early romanticism lay the accent on very artificial creations which left behind the borders of the customary fairy tales and did not disclose therefore to the impartial fairy tale reader any more so easily. Nevertheless, this changed again with the writers of the late romanticism who preferred the easy fairy tale tone.
His fairy tale books The caravan, The sheikh of Alexandria and The pub in the Spessart appeared in three successive years and play as the titles already betray, before different background. While he moves the action in East in the first both volumes, the rougher north than scene serves in the latter. The adventure marks all his fairy tales what is to be explained from his own enthusiasm for the stranger.
The Ebook counts to the most popular fairytale writers. He was stimulated by the brothers Grimm and the German art fairy tales. First still a clear support of the traditional is to be recognised in his fairy tales, however, soon he developed his own, unmistakeable style. In contrast to the national fairy tales which play basically at an uncertain place he described carefully the scene of his stories and paid attention to the nearness to the childish world view. His stories show an easy and ununnatural language and work by an urgent narrative tone. It was for him about it, the miraculous in the reality of the everyday life hineinzuholen, without a gap between both originates how it was often the case with the romantics. In Denmark like in Germany one saw in Andersens stories, primarily, fairy tale for children. However, this contradicted his own self-image, because he himself got on as an author for all age groups.
Social critical background have the fairy tales of Oscar to game which sketch ideal pictures in the conflict to cruel realities completely for the purposes of the romanticism or denounce from the point of the exploited victim the egoism and the superficiality of the ruling.
He kidnaps her childish readers from a real situation in a magic world and at the end again back in the reality. In her last work of "sea magic" she pursued peace-educational intentions. In the same style Gerdt of bass joke in "Peterchens of lunar journey kidnaps" his readers from the nursery in a heavenly world with fantasy character. The welcoming ballads of the allegorical natural minds in the castle of the night fairy are impressive.
She eceived for her fairy tale novel "The miraculous trip of small Nils Holgersson with the wild geese" in the Nobel prize for literature. A similar background has Pinocchio. In both continuation stories a disobedient child is educated by painful experiences.
He wrote fairy tale in the style of the Grimm'schen national fairy tales: Have appeared in "The source woman" and in "The golden grain", moreover, in 1988 four fantastic puppet plays "Kaspers adventurous trips by the seasons".
His ebook with oriental fairy tales "The honest liar", "narrator of the night" and "The miracle box" like those from 1001 night in frame stories.
Roland wrote philosophical ebook fairy tale fiction for adults: "The colours of the reality", "moonstone fairy tales", "dream sails", "dream fires".
It is about ethics and morality also in the neoromantic fables, parables, allegorical and mythical "fairy tales in the mirror of the time" for (shaker media) of Marion Wolf (*1950) - partly for children, partly for adults.
In the farthest sense to the art fairy tales the fantasy stories resulted in newer time can be also calculated. Also the science fiction-film row star War shows typical typical signs of a fairy tale, as for example the missing or extremely inexact local data and times (It were once long ago in a far away galaxy), the equalization of aristocrats and common people or the happy end.
Fairy tale parodies
With fairy tale parodies it concerns parodies of known fairy tales. Besides, the action deviates more or less strongly from that of the original fairy tale. The parody sometimes refers to one single fairy tale and sometimes to several at the same time.
Fairy tale collector
There are the masterly storytellers who collect fairy tale presumably, since there is fairy tale. They contributed to the origin, tradition of fairy tale and fairy tale collections decisively.
To the best known fairy tale collectors belong the Italian Basile, the French ebook, Benedikte Naubert, brothers Grimm, the Norwegian Peter, the soot Aleksandr as well as the Swiss pedagogue Otto. The stories from 1001 night contain a collection of oriental fairy tales. From Friedrich of the Leyen reasonable row "The fairy tales of the world literature" fairy tale introduces from all over the world.
Among the rest, the bards can be counted to the early storytellers and continue with it a narrative culture which must already have been put on in an early indogermanischen language area and cultural space.
With the Berbers in North Africa there is the culturally significant narrative tradition till this day.
Most storytellers of the present collect old national fairy tales and exert themselves for their preservation and the tradition of the narrative. The Germans have attained in this respect among other things fame in the German-speaking space. In the international area are to be called. In the South German space an educational bearer with the name Golden mouth inc. was founded in 1999, the story narrator trains. There are schools for storytellers meanwhile some, e.g., the fairy tale school RosenRot in Munich or the fairy tale centre thorn roses in Nuremberg or the Mutabor fairy tale endowment. In USA in Westphalia the European fairy tale society inc. (EMG) was founded which counts with her meanwhile 2,500 members to the biggest literary societies and offers for some decades among other things courses to the fairy tale customer and to the fairy tale narrative.
A special form of the storyteller is the moving Mundwerker or balladeer, a representative of the „moving people“. Moving people were to be found in Germany till the 1930s. These Mundwerker moved around and told street ballads against remuneration and/or sang ballads.
Festivals and leisure parks
From 1988 to 2006 the biggest narrative art festival of Europe took place in Graz annually The long night of the storytellers (GRAZ-TOLD). Since 2007 this event takes place in Lower Austria under the name magnificently ebook.
In Berlin the Berlin fairy tale days take place since 1990 yearly in November.
Moreover, there are fairy tale woods and fairy tale zoos, these are aggregations of dioramas with small figures and loudspeakers which tell fairy tale (mostly against coin throw-in). A fairy tale zoo steeped in tradition is, for example, the fairy tale zoo blue lake (Ratingen).
Since 1985 take place in the park of castle Philippsruhe in Hanau, the hometown of the brothers Grimm, brothers Grimm fairy tale festival. The numbers of visitors of the festival crossed in 2006 for the first time the million border.
The festival Balver cave organises since 1991 annually the row Balver fairy tale weeks.
An event for children and families is the festival of the best German-speaking storytellers and story narrators, e-book since 2005 always on the first week-end in July in new churches-Vluyn on the Lower Rhine under the patronage Ursula by the Leyens is delivered. 16 narrators and female narrators from German-speaking Europe position themselves in the competition to the audience and a jury.
In 2009 Marburg for some months had installed a fury-you-path with colossal fairy tale figures and information about the belonging to it fairy tales in the town. These should be appropriated in enlarged form to the 200-annual celebration of the child fairy tales and house fairy tales again in the e-books.
On the Danish island spring cross-beam the Bornholmer fairy tale festival takes place for over ten years between June and September. In each case 14 storytellers tell German-speaking fairy tales, myths and legends in the old Strandvogtei. Initiator of the festival is Eduard Dahlmann.
In 2012 Eduard founded the ebook fairy tale summer who will take place now annually on the island ebooks. The narrative site in 2012 was the fairy tale summer goes after mountains on book. Performance site there is the legends and fairy tale hotel.