Science fiction Ebook

29-04-2014, 14:19Print
Science fiction is a genre of the literature and the film, but also other disciplines as for example of the pedagogic art which looks at the singles, at the society or the environment in (often radically) to alternative constellations. Science fiction sketches – often in the future verortete, removed partially also spatially – constellations of the possible and describes their effects. Besides, real scientific and technical possibilities are fortified with fictional speculations.

Manners of writing
Beside science fiction the manner of writing Science Fiction is usual, seldom also science fiction (after old orthography science fiction).

Abbreviations are Sci-Fi or SciFi ebooks as well as SF.

Names
The concept Science fiction is used into many languages as a loan word and comes from in English science „(nature) science "und fiction" prose literature and narrative literature“. In the area of the literature belong to this type novels, stories, screenplays and other forms of the fiction. The concept has set up since the 1930s in the professional area and among lovers.

From some to Linguistic learning and literature specialists in the German language area synonymously used naming for a subrange is science fiction novel or future film. The other names which are used more or less precisely as synonyms are scientific Fantastik (an ebook from in Russian e-books which was usual with priority in the GDR) not to mistake fanciful literature as well as fantastic literature (with fantasy or romantic Fantastik). The concept Future literature is used now and then also as a synonym; however, he is right only for that branch of the science fiction which deals with the future. The controversies about the name of the genre are characteristic for his development and his wide-diversified subjects and motives, but also for political views.

To avoid the constriction of the genre on scientific / technical areas, science fiction authors like little Heine, Haldeman and Robinson stamped the concept Speculative Fiction without falling, on the other hand, under "anything goes" of the fantasy.

Definitions
The origin of the science fiction falls together with the origin by the technological use of the sciences of experience constituted modern age and their specific science faith. The concept was used for the first time, according to the author Felix J. Palma in his book The map of the time, by the Luxembourgian-American author Hugo Gernsback in 1926 in his magazine Amazing stories. In the science and her use dimension, the technology, the welfare of the people is seen. In parallel with the science faith originates in 19. Cent. the science and technology fear. This faith and the fear melt to the epochal new and split attitude to life to be a neomythical titan who is afraid of his own power. This ambivalence stamps the science fiction which has particularly made a mistake to the description of the effects of the technology on the person and the fanciful futurologischen extrapolation of her effects. Some poststrukturalistisch oriented authors like Samuel R. Delany represent the opinion that the Undefinierbarkeit an essential sign of science fiction is. In the theoretical discussion is also unsettled whether the science fiction is a genre or a type, lets itself define so whether them by a relatively firm continuance by formal, content or structural elements or whether science fiction should be described more appropriately than mode which calls the state of the fictional world at a more basic level than which of a genre. Delany sees in the literary science fiction even basically own linguistic form of expression which must be read like poetry differently than „normal literature“.

Particularly in the literature is valid that the concept of the science fiction is not defined over the action place. That is the fact that a history hears not necessarily science fiction in the type, only because it plays in the future or in the universe. The best example for this is probably star War, a classical fairy tale in a scene which many people would connect with science fiction. Against science fiction can be defined at least in the beginning to show a picture of our possibilities and to make clear thus the consequences of our action. With it "classical" science fiction has an unequivocal clearing up right.

Demarcation of fantasy
Science fiction differentiates itself generally from fantasy. It concerns fantasy always then when the shown phenomena are descended from the spiritual and maintain no relation for a scientific derivation. If both is mixed, one mostly speaks of "science fiction / fantasy", "SciFi fantasy" or of „Science of fantasy“. Examples for this are the star Wars films or the Darkover fiction. Often one also helps himself of classical fantasy elements and interprets them around. Thus the magic of the fantasy is exchanged in the science fiction often by Psi forces, gods or minds by transcendent life forms; however, in her purpose nothing changes.

Extensively unity rules over the fact that science fiction distinguishes itself by one or several elements which seem not possible in our "normal" everyday world. For this element the Latin name Novelty (Ger. innovation, majority has itself: Nova) extensively put through. Disagreements it rules over it, to what extent itself the novelty from typical elements of the fairy tale or the fantasy makes a distinction. Advocates of the hard science fiction argue, the novelty must be understandable academically explicably and rationally. This position is very argumentative, because in practice most Science-Fiction-Nova are scientifically unsettled or speculative or it also every now and then (even if seldom) it seems that scientific theories lapse. Typical Nova like time trip or excess of the speed of light often arise from pure wishful thinking and are hardly based on scientific attempts at explanation. In her kind of plausibility they hardly differ from elements of the fairy tale like flying brooms or magic drinks.

Difficultly the definition will also choose another subject, possibly by H by titles which only suggest a subject and to the main focus. G. Wells' Roman The time machine in which the time machine shows rather a place Nebenschau which still fits in the type of the science fiction while it is, primarily, however, about the utopia of the Morlocks and Eloi which are a horror and fantasy symbolism.

The author Arthur C. Clarke formulated his third Clarkesches law to this point of view: „Every enough advanced technology is not to be distinguished from magic.“ The explanation best of all to be understood is fine that is tried in the science fiction to deliver a scientific explanation, even if this must not correspond to the reality, while in the fantasy the suitable elements (e.g., big speaking spiders are simply accepted in Harry Potter).

Changes
Since the science fiction from the niche is out and has conquered the mass market, it seems necessary also less and less to integrate scientific, and fantasy can lighter go through than science fiction. The fact that the spectator identifies the "transporter" from star Trek immediately as a science fiction element, nothing deals with the fact that he would be more plausible or would technically more understandable than the magic wand. This is not called again that Science-Fiction-Nova are impossible by Se.

Therefore, recently one mostly subordinates no academic nature of the science fiction more, but only that she claims academic nature for herself. Science fiction is less a question of the plausibility, but the position which a film / novel takes compared with the shown world. Science fiction is understood by many authors as a fairy tale story with which merely the choice of the fantastic elements of the time is adapted – people are conjured not to other places, but with technical apparatuses "gebeamt" (e.g., in star Trek) to make the history more plausibly. The novelty is "naturalized", adapted so to the respective images of science and technology.

Science fiction ageing and fantasy
A constant actualisation of the methods belongs to it. Are with Jules Verne and H. G. Wells still inconceivably gigantic cannons or today absurdly appearing steam-done mechanical apparatuses the vehicle of the story, so today's authors handle alike risquély with knowledge from the sciences and apparatuses think up for time travelling or locomotion in the e-book. The more itself science fiction in her representation of topical images of as technology and science have to look, remotely, the more she approaches to the fantasy. This is also one of the reasons, why science fiction stories and in particular films already work few years after the origin every now and then naively or involuntarily funnily. Developments take place faster, more slowly or quite differently than to the time of origin point of the work accepted. The Kommunikator possibly in the first star Trek series was not even conceivable in the 60s with his planet ares reach as an expensive special transceiver, however, works today in the age of the mobile telephony as a relic. Other technologies, like the spaceship or Holodeck, are of the development far ahead. Thus science fiction always remains a balancing act between too strong and to weak developing evaluation. However, there is also the genre of the Steampunk with which the authors imagine themselves deliberately on the level of knowledge of a former epoch, mainly of the outgoing 19th century, and from there then prevailing technologies develop. During the last years the concept Rocketpunk was stamped analogously moreover to describe an untergenre which imitates the classical SF of the Golden Age, while it goes out from a level of knowledge about 1950.

Science fiction and Fantastik
Before fantasy or science fiction found recognition as own genre, Fantastik was used often (e.g., separating to the utopia) as a synonym for science fiction.

An older, but still common system looks at the Fantastik than group that literary (cinematic etc.) works in which topically really appearing elements do not seem. Science fiction is here the area which operates without supernatural (how magic and mythical figure). With fantasy against it magic and/or mythical figure belong to the scenery or to the action. Indeed, there is with the role play row Shadowrun in whose world also various novels play, such a crossover, i.e. in a future, highly mechanised Cyberpunk world classical mythical figures exist very well also like elves or dragons, and there is magic there also in different kinds. The supernatural, neither with „classical magic“ nor with „typical mythical figures“ (dragon, elves, trolls etc.) deals, or things which are (still explicable not scientific-logically are often summarised under "Mystery" (this concept is used above all in the film area). Horror can seem in this order in each of the genres.

In many areas science fiction is still arranged under Fantastik (or fantasy) (often in the young adult literature or with low supplies), mostly, however, under fantasy.

There is no uniform ordinal system of science fiction in the literature (or in the film, at the theatre, in pedagogic art) for the demarcation of Fantastik or fantasy, so that the one and same work is led according to collection sometimes under science fiction, sometimes under fantasy etc., if separate categories exist.

Overview and directions
Overlapping with other genres
Science fiction is no puristic genre which closes mind compared with all others. On the contrary one of the big strengths exists in the absorption of all conceivable literary currents and styles. Then often specific Subgenres arise from it. In the following only the overlappings with thematically relatively closely related genres are briefly shown.

Overlapping with horror and fantasy
The biggest nearness probably exists to genres like horror literature (or horror film, compares the film row alien and event Horizon) and fantasy. Horror describes less the contents of a story than rather the style, the effect on the reader. Fantasy encloses those cases in which the happened is just explained no more apparently rationally. One can also speak of borderline cases to the fantasy if either the history plays in a so far apart future or a so other world that this looks "supernatural" there "natural" on us as (e.g., in star War or flock which rather to the genre fantasy can be counted), or the scenery (e.g., medieval hierarchy) and/or the action structure (e.g., the Quest) is typical for fantasy which functions history, however, neither with magic nor mythical figure.

Although of Mary Shelley Roman Frankenstein and Robert Louis Stevensons The strange case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde supernatural elements contain, they are stamped by the extrapolation of scientific ideas and are valid, hence, as a science fiction. Against it is of Bram Stoker Roman Dracula pure fantasy.

Also many under the upper concept Science fiction running works do not use possibly the space or a future world to speculate on questions of human developments, but as an exotic scenery, before the traditional genres (adventures, romance) run off. The concept for this is Space opuses – examples are among other things films like war of the stars (star War) or film series like Flash Gordon and Buck Rogers. An example in the novel notebook area is the postal-apocalyptic series Maddrax, in the science fiction and fantasy with horror as well as classical adventure, but also parodistic elements is mixed.

Today according to contents of the thought up world appearing novels are offered rather than a science fiction or fantasy. Publishing companies often do not separate the genres are sharp and lead a "SF&F" row, in the science fiction, fantasy and sometimes also horror are summarised. For this the concept Speculative Fiction was also stamped as an alternative interpretation of the abbreviation SF. Into German one also speaks of „fantastic literature“.

Overlapping with utopias and Dystopien

Woodcut to the issue of "Utopia" of 1518
An other overlapping arises for modern science fiction literature as a rule with the utopia. While the science fiction is often content with the representation of aspects of technical and social developments, the utopia which wants to show an entire society draught was used originally as a Trojan horse. Aim was often it to introduce political and philosophical ideas to the public under avoidance of obrigkeitlicher censorship.

Indeed, the classical utopias can be valid like Thomas Morus' Utopia (1516) or Tommaso Campanellas La città del sole (The solar state, in 1623) hardly as a science fiction, because they have originated at one time at which scientific and technical progress still no important categories explained; accordingly the early utopias also show no science fiction novelty. The classical utopias are mostly settled on a distant island. Only in the 19th century, with the industrial revolution the utopia shifts in the future, become Nova typical utopia elements. The classical utopia goes from a static, perfectly organised state thing which only still in detail must be filed. Since the late 20th century appeared less comprehensive utopias.

An important work in the interface between fanciful literature and science fiction was Roman L'An in 2440, rêve s'il en fut jamais (2440. A dream of all dreams) of the French author Louis-Sébastien Mercier from 1771 who describes the trip of an inhabitant of Paris in the better future of his town and his country by which the utopia became something accessible instead of only to an exemplary draught; because the attention of the author lies, besides, however, purely on social-cultural developments and practically no technical aspects are mentioned (the protagonist of the novel dreams himself in the future, while he sleeps 700 years in his bed), the work is not looked as "a real" science fiction.

By contrast the science fiction encloses particularly in the 20th century also anti-utopias. Negative future images were not spread in the age of the clarification yet, however, since the 19th century offered the crises of capitalism, the dictatorship of the totalitarianism and the horror of the world wars, moreover, the fear of atomic and other weapons of mass destruction or disasters, material for different dystopische scenarios.

Classical Dystopien concentrate like utopias upon conceivable future social structures, nevertheless, these characterise as negative to warn about present aspects of the relations sharpened in the future. The novel The report of the maiden possibly takes by illnesses, radioactive contamination and environmental pollution caused infertility to the occasion to bring forward a Christian-fundamentalist and paramilitary organised society. Often dystopisch, or, in any case, less enthusiastically with future than many works of the science fiction, are works of the Mundane science fiction which renounce technologies unlikely from today's view like interstellar astronautics consciously.

One calls postal apocalypse such stories before the background one by war, disasters or similar destroyed civilisation. Also future end of the world events became on the literary subject, often with allusions on the Christian Apokalyptik from which the concept widespread for apocalyptic and postal-apocalyptic scenarios "End time" was taken over.

Moreover, such stories which lay a more continuous decline count to the sombre future descriptions called with the upper concept Dark Future. Possible wars or disasters are not there a main topic, in the Cyberpunk called Subgenre form rather totalitarian supervision through states (in the novel in 1984) or the menace by artificial intelligence (in the film row matrix) or groups (in the novel trilogy new novel cerium) bases of the action. Steampunk is a similar genre which uses, nevertheless, a background with technical and social development like the Victorian age in the form of an alternative world history.

Overlapping with three-day event stories
Since some time science fiction fiction which lays a very strong weight on the military aspect and during the conflict will be regulated normally in military way, in the category Three-day event science fiction arranged., Among the rest, classical works like E count to it. E. Smiths Roman Skylark, Robert A. Heinleins Starship Troopers (see the also filming), Hornblower-Science-Fiction-Adaptionen possibly with David Weber: Honor Harrington or David Feintuch: Nick Seafort, as well as newer Space Operas like John Ringo's invasion or David Drakes Lt. Leary.

An unequivocal demarcation to other Sub genres of the science fiction is possible only seldom. For example, Lois McMaster Bujolds prize-winning Vorkosigan saga sways always somewhere between three-day event science fiction, Space to opuses and detective / diplomat fiction and the author proves, in addition, one more heart for erotic ebook. On account of the descriptions often faithful to detail of technical arrangements most Military-Science-Fiction-Romane belong in principle in the area of Hard science fiction. However, really there are even humorous novels like Robert Asprin's cycle about the chaos company which one could count to the three-day event science fiction, although in them the military is had on hard.

Although in a lot of science fiction fiction Military conflicts play an essential role, only a small part of these works will provide three-day event science fiction with the label.

Most authors avoid this name, because this branch of the science fiction is under-fire:

„No doubt, they are among us, the best ebook long ago sabre-rattler presumed dead and intergalactic war correspondent“
„with neoconservative mentality and the literary abilities of a 11 year-old“ (Hannes Riffel, foreign language assistant and translator)
„… they limit themselves like formerly to move the US-American imperialism of the home front in the universe“
Science fiction is like every literary genre always a mirror of the spirit of the times and the subjects which move the public to the time of origin point. Military stories pile up, since the main audience is stronger confronted in the industrial nations by the terrorist attacks on the 11th of September, 2001 and the wars in Yugoslavia, in Iraq and in Afghanistan with the subject.

Hard and softy science fiction ebooks

Hard science fiction (briefly Hard-SF) calls the branch of the science fiction which is marked by an interest in scientific exactness and/or details. In the centre of the stories stand the natural sciences (e.g., astronomy, physics, genetic technology) as well as technical progress.

A very technology-dominated and fact-dominated narrative technique and the advancement more topically of scientific phenomena is typical; however, there are also authors who give priority to the human being, hence, the Herausarbeitung of weight-bearing figures withdraws now and then. The technical or scientific aspect is normally an important component of the action and the authors mostly go out from the most modern level of knowledge of her time to develop own ideas logically.

As a representative of topical hard science fiction are valid among other things Greg Bear, Peter F. Hamilton, Alastair Reynolds, Gregory Benford, Stephen Baxter, Robert Charles Wilson and Robert L. Forward, as a classic, for example, Isaac Asimov and Arthur C. Clarke.

Softly science fiction
The Softly science fiction (briefly Soft-SF) deals more with philosophical, psychological, political or social subjects. The concept comes softly from the English and separates there the called humanities against them (hard or exact) natural sciences.

The Soft-SF uses technical achievements rather on the edge and than to aid to embed the action. Hence, the Focus is directed more upon the characterisation of the acting people and her emotions, like, among the rest, with Ray Bradbury, Ursula K. Le Guin or Philip K. Dick.

A known example of the soft science fiction shows Frank Herbert's wild planet series flock in which a universe with advanced technology, but at the same time a feudal structure is thought up. The role of the ruling class and questions after responsibility and ethics are a weight-bearing part of the action. Other examples are found in works of Stanisław Lem in which he has done fictions about psychochemical world improvement or political ideas in the extremes.

Future literature in the ebook

Future literature is on the one hand the branch of the science fiction which deals with the future of the people and speculates on the advancement of the humanity (cf. utopia and Dystopie). At times it was the main area of the science fiction and was used as a generic term and the future was connected always closely with the present. Some authors tried to limit themselves to the closer future. An example of it is the draught of the "Nahphantastik" which was represented, for example, by Carlos Rasch.

On the other hand one can call with the concept "Future literature" also scientific and popular-scientific works about the future. The telecast The future is wild used for it the possibilities of the modern computer animation.

History of the science fiction
Precursor

Cyrano de Bergerac with the writing
The science fiction in the narrower sense could originate only with the development of science and technology. Beside the incredible, fantastic and fantastic narrative property available in all cultures and literature property which might have given though suggestion, but not as a precursor in the real sense can be understood, there are in Europe of the beginning modern times some attempts.

After the development of the telescope the moon was recognised as a vast heavenly body, and in the age of the discoverers was dreamt straight away of lunar travelling (Johannes Kepler: Somnium, Ger. The dream, in 1634; Cyrano de Bergerac: L'histoire comique contenant les états et of empire de la lune, in 1656). Voltaire led his readers in the Micromégas (1752) in the wide space, while Jonathan Swift explores (1726) foreign people and cultures on the earth in Gullivers travelling. Julius von Voss extrapolated in Ini. A novel from the one and twentieth century (1810) military and cultural inventions, from weapons of mass destruction up to the general social security. In the 19th century elements of the science fiction are found with authors like Edgar Allan Poe, Nathaniel Hawthorne and Fitz-James O'Brien. A German representative was E. T. A. Hoffmann.

Early works with ebook
In the 19th century the time of the real science fiction began in Europe. The best known representatives are Jules Verne with his scientific-romantic adventures and H. G. Wells with technical-society-critical works. As a founder of the genre, however, is valid Mary Shelley with her Roman Frankenstein.

A German representative of this period is Kurd Laßwitz after which a price of German science fiction literature is named. With his technical-scientific works Hans Dominik is called the German Jules Verne, he is one of the most important pioneers of the future literature in Germany. Paul Eugene Sieg with his technical science fiction novels was also read a lot in the middle of the last century.

The first German Science Fiction-notebook novel series was The hijacker and his tractable airship which appeared from 1908 to approx. 1911/12 in 165 issues in Berlin.

In the USA the science fiction stepped mainly in the short history before her audience. The best known periodically appearing science fiction magazine of this time was the Amazing published by Hugo Gernsback stories which devoted itself since 1926 excluding the publication of science fiction stories. Indeed, was the name elective by Hugo Gernsback scientifiction, and then this period of the science fiction is also called "scientifiction".

The association coming from this time of the science fiction with "cheap" magazines and aufreißerisch to formed title pages (execrable monsters and half-naked, helpless women) make to the science fiction till this day difficult to be recognised in Germany as a serious literature. This "pulp", nevertheless, gave to the science fiction authors for decades opportunity to print her countless short stories and to reach the audience because of her low price which was the most receptive to science fiction: Children and youngsters.

Absolutely without influence by the pulp Olaf Stapledon wrote in the 1930s his both main works Load and Ridge Men and star Maker. In this partially very drily to works to be read seeming draughts should form for decades a stone quarry in ideas for many science fiction authors.

The Golden Age in the USA

Isaac Asimov (1965)
A revaluation of the science fiction began, as John W. Campbell in 1937, Jr. the publisher of Astounding became. While Gernsback thought highly more of technical descriptions and a rather easy style, preferred Campbell Geschichten who also treated subjects like sociology, psychology and politics. From him favoured stories had to be based on an amazing acceptance or take at least an astonishing idiom. He brought out stories later of known and successful authors (Isaac Asimov, Arthur C. Clarke and Robert Heinlein). All together the science fiction is influenced worldwide strongly by US authors of this time.

But also a row of the authors who are to be added only partly of the science fiction tried in the genre and brought to the science fiction a more serious image (Karel Čapek, Aldous Huxley, Franz Werfel, Clive Stapl Lewis, Ray Bradbury, Kurt Vonnegut, George Orwell, Gore Vidal).

In the philosophy the problem of the possible self-confidence of robots (a concept, which Karel Čapek became in 1920 in his science fiction play „R.U.R.“ for the first time used) as a problem of the logic of God's hard e-book treated who published about that even in Astounding what A. E. van steward on his part in The world of the Null-A took up.

After the Second World War
The post-war period saw in particular in the USA a growing popularity of the science fiction. In always new magazines the authors found a platform for her stories. The US-American dream seemed handy after the won war, the 50th were a time of the impetus and hope. With the amount of the cold war many authors of the science fiction made it to themselves the job to name the fears of him or the atom bomb, because the subject was put under taboo otherwise. The authors were inspired to write about paranoia and dictatorships in the universe.

The cinema thereby also discovered the possibilities of the science fiction. Popular were the double presentations taking place on Sunday morning in which to children of films like The day in which the earth stood still The thing from another world (after John W. Campbell), alarm in the universe, Metaluna 4 does not answer or The demoniacal (after a presentation were shown by Jack Finney). The films which can be seen as a memorial against atom bombs or – according to position – the committee by McCarthy or, however, the communism. The interest in the books was thereby kept up.

In the 1960s so different authors debuted like John Brunner or Frank Herbert, and also the short stories numerous above all till then as an author come out Philip K. Dick took pleasure to an increasing popularity.

Modern science fiction
In 1957 the Sputnik started as the first satellite created by people, shortly after Sputnik 2 with the bitch Laika followed aboard; in 1961 Juri Gagarin travelled as the first person in all. The USA were hit, which is why president John F. Kennedy announced, the first person on the moon must be an American.

The interest in the science fiction got a push again, particularly as as a result of the space race a row of technical achievements were made which stood soon afterwards in the sitting rooms of the population. But this progress did not cause, as expected, peace.

Science fiction was taken seriously for the first time, because every potential reader of the stories believed that her contents can become sooner or later a reality. The problems and her solutions which were settled in the space differed not too very much from those on the earth. James Graham Ballard and Anthony Burgess stand for a science fiction which was closer to the present than to her could be dear. Harry Harrison wrote New York 1999, Philip K. Dick wrote The oracle of the mountain over the USA which the Second World War lost, Thomas Michael Disch The fire devils.

Not only in the literature science fiction became on an important subject. In the music also found since end of the 50s space relations entrance in the song texts. Thus vowel quartet connected The Ames Brothers on the album "destination of Moon" for example, conventional texts about love with spaceships and distant galaxies. The music label RCA Records hoped for rising sales figures by the inclusion of this topical trend. Musicians like Sun Ra or Ramases also took up on motives of the Science Ficition and dressed them in cosmic myths.

Frank Herbert's wild planet (flock) was the beginning of the e-books cycle which introduced in him a similarly fanatical readership like Tolkien with man of the rings. Therefore, Herberts science fiction with his stress of government forms, people and less the technology was looked than soft science fiction.

Also spaceship Enterprise, in the original star Trek whose debut occurred in 1966 at the height of the space fever can be looked as such soft science fiction. Although big value was placed of the technical details and their Stimmigkeit (Asimov as a scientist acted several times as an adviser), the actions of the results do not very SF typically. Nevertheless, it was the first worldwide successful series of the genre which entered for Universalismus and humanism, and advertised, e.g., by the multiethnic composition of the main characters to understanding among nations (a kiss was shown among other things for the first time between a white man and a black woman on the US television).

Especially the succession series begun in 1987 spaceship Enterprise: The next century (original: Star Trek: The Next generation) took up in the tradition of the predecessor over and over again explosive society-critical subjects and to pacifistic and humanistic elements stronger weight was attached. The same is valid for some of the star Trek films.

In Germany ran middle of the 1960th seven results of the space patrol with the spaceship Orion and his team who showed a comparable composition. The series got later some fans who award her "cult status".

The science fiction series most long-lasting up to now Doctor Who started in 1963 in Great Britain and became there one of the most popular TV serials generally. It is the history of a time traveller and his companions. Since 2005 new results appear after several years' interruption again.

An advancement in the film gave an understanding of the science fiction to a wide audience: In 2001: Odyssey in the space (direction: Stanley Kubrick, written by Arthur C. Clarke) and planet of the monkeys (after Pierre Boulle, both in 1968) showed that they‚ bad extraterrestrial‘ did not irritate the audience any more. New Hollywood began his revolution and also reached the science fiction cinema, not least with Blockbustern like war of the stars. Between this "Space fairy tale" and the uncanny meeting of the third kind (both lie in 1977), also in the style and the kind, already worlds. Same is valid (1978) and his first successors aliens – The return eight years later for alien.

Most following science fiction films were comparable coloured, expensive action films, on the taste of the youthful audience fitted and hardly with serious science fiction literature.

See also: Science fiction on television and science fiction film

A science fiction ebook stamped socially and increasingly ideally was found since the 1960th also beyond the USA. In particular in the countries of the Eastern bloc the science fiction could practise a concealed society criticism. Known authors are, for example, the Pole Stanisław Lem who covers the whole range of the serious future non-fiction book about unreal, partly kafkaesque counterworlds and satirical space fiction up to computer fairy tale and witty own parodies of the science fiction genre (pilot Pirx, professor Tarantoga), as well as the brothers Arkadi and Boris Strugazki from the Soviet Union.

New Wave
Literary claim
In the middle of the 1960s with the New Wave a new current appeared which had sat down explicitly to the aim to break with the established conventions Gernsback-and Campbell-SF. The New Wave was the strongest in Great Britain of 1963 till the beginning of the 1970s. Central organ of this current whose name leant explicitly upon the French Nouvelle Vague of the cinema was the British SF magazine New Worlds; both most important protagonists were Michael Moorcock who acted above all as a publisher and Propagator, and J. G. Ballard, the literary leading figure of the movement; William S. Burroughs served both as a big model. However, many came from the USA. Importantly the American collection Dangerous Visions (was also published by Harlan Ellison in 1967). as a precursor can be valid Alfred Bester, Ray Bradbury, Algis Budrys, Fritz Leiber, Catherine Lucile Moore and Theodore Sturgeon.

A more experimental position displayed the New Wave with regard to form and contents of the science fiction, linked with a, highly literarily ambitious position self-confidently differentiating from the groschen literature. The exponents of the current criticised the existing science fiction as a conservative literature which paused concerning the contents as well as formally in the shutdown. A renewal of the SF literature which should catch up formally with the "serious" literature was demanded.

The New Wave was, nevertheless, at no time a homogeneous movement, and the claim to renewal of the science fiction was really realised only in few examples; also many of the programmatic texts of the New Wave are contradictory in themselves. Moorcock said goodbye to the very content adjustment and pleaded for a revaluation of the style. If Gernsback and Campbell had defined the science fiction always concerning the contents and had faded out formal questions almost completely, referred Moorcock explicitly on ebooks positions of 19. and early 20th century.

More experimental forms
Really the texts of the New Wave distinguish themselves by an experimental joy unknown for the science fiction till then, numerous stylistic means which were foreign to the science fiction till then, found entrance in the mode: Assembly technology, stream of consciousness, irony, multiperspective and associative narrative, unreliable narrator, a strongly rhythmicized language and typographic games. Besides, in most cases it concerned, admittedly, not authentic innovations of the science fiction, but stylistic means of the avant-garde literature of the turn of the century and the early 20th century. The science fiction made up with the New Wave for above all general literary developments.

Content innovations
At least one part of the New Wave authors aimed not only at a formal, but also at a content renewal. The New Wave clearly dissociated itself from the optimistic, in principle technology-affirming science fiction of the Golden Age. A clear refusal was given to hope that the nature can be seen through and controlled; the basic mood of the New Wave is mostly pessimistic and introspective. The authors were interested less in wonderful technical innovations, instead, they picked out as a central theme till then put under taboo areas like sex and drugs; instead of the conquest of the universe the investigation was announced internal space of the soul.

Other stories entwined themselves round the functional mechanisms of the mass media or whole social systems, or treated dystopische subjects like entropy scenarios, crisis scenarios and end of the world scenarios. A political implication lets itself among other things with Brian Aldiss, Thomas Michael Disch put out who was directed partly from Marxist and socialist traditions influenced against the hegemony of the American culture as well as the technology devoutness of the campbellschen science fiction. In the USA it was seen the New Wave, hence, also in narrow connection with the political lefts and the protest movement against the Vietnam war.

Important authors of the New Wave were Brian Aldiss, James Graham Ballard, John Brunner, Samuel R. Delany, Philip K. Dick, Thomas Michael Disch, Harlan Ellison, Philip José Farmer, M. John Harrison, Ursula K. Le Guin, James Tiptree Jr., Michael Moorcock, Robert Silverberg, Norman Spinrad, Roger Zelazny.

Cyberpunk
A relatively new direction of the science fiction is of the Cyberpunk in which in particular the idea of the virtual reality allowed by computer is pursued. As a founder of this direction are to be called above all William Gibson (new novel cerium, Count Zero (Ger. biochips), Mona Lisa Overdrive) and Bruce Sterling. Other representatives are among other things Pat Cadigan and recently Neal Stephenson (Snow Crash, slide moon Age, Cryptonomicon). Cinematic works mostly of dystopischer version are, for example, a matrix or Dark city.

One of the first originally cinematic contributions on the subject virtual reality was – beside Rainer W. Fassbinders to two-part TV film a world in the wire (1973) – the film Tron (1982). However, prestigiously for the visual style of the Cyberpunks it is rather Blade Runner (1982), the filming of the novel to dreams androids of electric sheep?.

Alternative reality
A subspecies of the science fiction is the „alternative reality“ (from English„ Alternate Reality“, see also parallel world, parallel universe, as well as in particular alternative world history). This stories describe a world in which the history has taken another course than in the reality known to us. Internationally, besides, the science fiction novel Pavane were known by Keith Roberts in whom a world is described after the victory of the Spanish armada, as well as the novels The oracle about the mountain of Philip K. Dick and native country of Robert Harris as well as If would know that of the leaders! from Otto Basil which draw the world from a victory of national-socialist Germany during the Second World War. The steel dream of Norman Spinrad contains a novel in the novel on this subject. In the German-speaking space the authors Carl Amery with his Roman An brought to the fires of the Leyermark (1979), Oliver Henkel, Marcus Hammerschmitt and Christian v. Ditfurth (The wall stands on the Rhine – Germany after the victory of the socialism) the variant „alternative reality“ at the head.

Science fiction in the German-speaking space
As a father of the German-speaking Science Fiction is valid the Kurd Laßwitz born in 1848 after which also the most important German Science Fiction price is named, the Kurd Lasswitz price which was brought to life in 1980. John Clute called of Laßwitz' in 1897 appeared Roman Auf two planets the most important German SF novel.

Laßwitz also influenced the following German authors, among the rest, Carl Grunert who wrote between 1903 and 1914 a row of "future novellas". At the beginning of the 20th century Oskar Hoffmann published several fanciful adventure novels with titles like The conquest of the air. Cultural novel of 1940. For the 20s and 30s above all Paul Eugene Sieg and Hans Dominik whose technical-scientific science fiction novels took pleasure in Germany of big popularity are to be mentioned. With mountains of seas and giant Alfred created in 1924 an experimental novel which describes the development of the humanity up to the 28th century.

After the Second World War it lasted long, until science fiction authors bigger again appeared in the German-speaking space. The Austrian Herbert W. Franke who published novels like the net of thought from the 60s counted to the first ones. With the notebook novel row Perry Rhodan started in 1961 a science fiction series which is continued till this day and still owns loyal supporters. Wolfgang Jeschke who was a publishing company very importantly for the (west) German science fiction also as a long-standing SF publisher with the Heyne published in 1981 his debut The last days of the creation. As the maybe best and most popular SF authors of the GDR are valid the author's pair Angela and Karlheinz, Andymon. A space utopia of 1982 a classic of the DDR-Science Fiction is.

Since his prize-winning first-born's novel ebook (1995) Andreas Eschbach developed respected German SF author to currently best known, most popular and also from the criticism mostly. Frank downloaded th ebook with his extensive, intensely investigated science thrillers the dream and limit also celebrated best-seller success.

Interesting single works come over and over again from authors whose works belong only partially or exceptionally to the Science Fiction: For example, from Peter Schmidt, Thomas Lehr (42), Christian v. Ditfurth (political alternative world fiction), Dietmar Dath (Kurd Lasswitz price in 2009 for The abolition of the kinds), or Christian Kracht (Phantastik price of the city of Wetzlar in 2009 for Me will be here in the sunshine and in the shade).

Distinct genre authors of the younger generation would be possibly Andreas Brandhorst, Uwe Post or Frank Borsch.

Science fiction in the Soviet Union
The Soviet literature disposed of own very plentiful choice in science fiction works which, differently than this in the western literature was done, was counted immediately to the literature there. Most science fiction works delivered fanciful draughts for a future society, as for example in Roman Andromedanebel of Iwan Antonowitsch Jefremow from 1957 which was the probably most important and most successful book of this new genre in the Soviet Union with more than 20 million copies. The red planet of Alexander Alexandrowitsch Bogdanow (appeared in 1908) a communist society on the planet describes Mars. The genre of the science fiction quickly developed to a sort of megaphone for liberal, religious and political critics in the Soviet government and their world view (Arkadi and Boris Strugazki).

Later science fiction films were also turned which served again to challenge the Soviet materialism. Thus the confrontation of an occupying of a space station with an absolutely foreign life form which for them to the metaphysical trip in the inside world of her own culture, self-knowledge, love and patience becomes is shown for example in Andrei Tarkowski's film Solaris from 1972. It is astonishing in the realisation of these films that they all originated in the Breschnew era in which all forms of the organised religion were strongly limited.

Science fiction in Japan
In Japan science fiction was and is a very popular genre which has strongly influenced the modern pop culture.

The origins are already to be seen in the Japanese mythology, indeed, materials similar to science fiction appear for the first time at the moment of the Meiji restoration in Japan. In 1849 appeared a story which one can call the first real Japanese science fiction history. It was written by Gesshu Iwagaki and carries the title Seio kaischin hen what about means „report of a success in Europe“. In the beginning beside this fantastic adventure history – with the mental position scientific in her prevailing SF typical ones – above all translations of the novels of Jules Verne appeared.

After the Second World War above all American paperbacks with the occupying power came to Japan. The first science fiction magazine, Seiun appeared in 1954, however, was put already after an issue again. In the 1960th in which, e.g., the magazines SF and Uchūjin ("More extraterrestrial") were published, experienced science fiction in Japan then, finally, popularity. In this time the "tallness three" of the Japanese science fiction published her first works: Yasutaka Tsutsui, Shin'ichi Hoshi and Sakyō Komatsu.

In the 1980th the interest dwindled in science fiction then increasingly when the interest went over to audio-visual media. This time span is called the "wintertime". To attract many authors to published science fiction and fantasy stories as a Light Novels around youthful buyers. Nevertheless, Tanaka was published, for example, Ginga Eiyū Densetsu by Yoshiki.

In the 90th the border became blurred between science fiction fiction and Light Novels. Although Morioka Hiroyukis is a row of quay Sei no Monshō a Light Novel, it was published by Hayakawa Shobo as a part of the science fiction mainstream. On the other hand, Light Novel authors like Sasamoto and Nojiri also published hard SF stories.

Science fiction series
The biggest SF series in literature form and generally extent the biggest "SF universe" shows the series appearing weekly to Perry Rhodan. Besides, the main series has generated varied Spin out of vision in the form of independent series, computer games or comics. Also very extensively is the universe of star Trek which is formed by the different TV serials and films, but also by novels, comics and computer games. Also with the star Wars universe a comprehensive Merchandising has started outgoing from the films. Other extensive science fiction series are the Gundam universe with more than 30 series and films in 7 time lines, the star gate TV serials, the Babylon 5-TV serial, the Honor Harrington series of books and the Japanese Seikai-no-Monshō-Universum.

Following
The SF genre distinguishes itself by a strong following (English fan cathedral) in which also many SF authors take part actively. In Germany this one tradition reaching till the 1950s has. Many fans organise in the numerous small and big fan clubs as well as the numerous Internet-Communitys which are supported not seldom by the appropriate publishing companies. In younger time also originate Online-Communitys which allow the publication of own science fiction-short stories on the Internet, thus, for example, Orion's to arm or Galaxiki.

Important German SF magazines are Nautilus - adventure & Phantastik, fantastically!, Nova, exodus, the Quarber published by Franz Rottensteiner Mercury and the Fantastik magazine Pandora. A source of information is also the extensive SF yearbook The Science Fiction year from the Heyne publishing company. Drop-in centres for questions and discussions to the science fiction are beside the fan clubs the science fiction newsgroups of the de.rec.sf.* hierarchy, as well as numerous Internet forums and chats.

Beside the work on varied publications (fan magazines, Fanzine) and chat role plays engaged fan groups often deal with the organisation of the numerous SF-Conventions, briefly Cons. The most important SF event of this kind is the World Science Fiction Convention, briefly Worldcon which awards one of the most popular prices of the SF literature with Hugo Award. In Germany belong of the DORT.con in Dortmund and the Elstercon in Leipzig which also invite international authors as guests of honour, to the more important Conventions with main focus on SF literature. However, the FedCon is valid under above all in film and television for oriented media Conventions as the biggest star Trek and science fiction event of Europe.

Use of the concept in the figurative e-book sense
Science fiction has entered as – sometimes pejorative meant – name for technical objects or technologies into the everyday language which are classed with it as „in distant future recumbent“ or as "a Phantasterei". The speaker wants to express that he looks at the described thing as unrealistic or as "dreams of the future". With it partially walks along that at the same time the technical feasibility is doubted generally and with it also the Sinnhaftigkeit.

Thus the US research program was called possibly in the 1980s to the antiballistic missile defence in the space, the Strategic Defense initiative (SDI), by critics often as a science fiction, what also in the with pleasure used synonym star War appeared. Afterwards turned out that the project aims had really been fanciful, and the technical feasibility had been presented above all by Edward Teller massively clarified.

A more topical use is found with an initiative supported by the pirate's party against the EU project INDECT for the comprehensive supervision: What sounds like weird Science Fiction, could come true from 2013-difficult to be understood ones. Yesterday Science Fiction was. INDECT connects all data from forums, Social Networks (e.g., Facebook), searching machines of the Internet with state data banks, communication data and camera observations on the street.

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