Science e-books

29-04-2014, 16:49Print
The science of information examines information and ebook knowledge. For the understanding of the science of information the meaning of information is active relevant as a dynamic process (: inform; passively: are informed) and from knowledge as something static which is fixed in documents, as a personal knowledge in the heads by people or somewhere else.

„Science of information examines evaluating / select, opening, providing / recycle, searches, mediating and finding about relevant (mainly digitally present) Know, by processes of information and communication processes“

– Wolfgang G. Stock: Information Retrieval ebooks
As relevant the information with which the searching inquiry (Query) is satisfied by the concerning hit objectively is called. Whether the hit is, nevertheless, for the searching of subjective use, so "pertinent", no role plays with the relevance measure.

Gernot Wersig described science of information under stress of the interdisciplinary beginning as a triad of knowledge, person and information technology: Therefore, science of information is

„the science of the knowledge use under the conditions of the new information technologies and communication technologies at all levels – individually, organizationally, culturally, socially“

A bridge function comes up by her relatively "neutral" approach of the knowledge transfer to the science of information. Science of information is systematic and thematic as well as methodically close-knit with the journalism science, media science and communication science, the Kognitionspsychologie, the computer linguistics, the informatics (science of the processing of information) and suitable more special stamping of the economic informatics or the legal informatics. From scientific of information view the user stands always in the centre in case of the consideration of the interface of person and system.

Compression of information (abstract / short description)
Filter of information (sieve)
Provide
Treatment of the documents, so that the contents of information (Content) optimally structure, slightly discoverable and well readably in the document memory (administered) is filed.
This happens by thematic filters of information like the contents development (Indexing) which works with different Dokumentationssmethoden like catchword method, thesauri and classifications to the feed of the documents in the document memories. The title indexation, text word method e-book and Zitationsindexierung and the capture as full text (ASCII) belong to the text-linguistic methods.
Search
Observation of the users while processing your needs of information ("benefit investigation")
Find − search
Information Retrieval/recovery of information. Classical e-books are the vector space model as well as the probabilistische model. In the Web-Information-Retrieval left topological models (come how PageRank or the small mountain algorithm).
Boolesche systems or natural-speaking systems
classical data banks (how dialogue, Questel orbit patent searching tool, ebook GBI-Genios or LexisNexis) and searching machines (how Google or Yahoo)
Science of information is as a theoretical, empiric and applied science as well as her practical methods a basis discipline of Internet economy and in-plant science of information and with it the foundation of the information society.
Subranges and research main focuses
Occupation sphere
Information scientists find in the Internet economy, in the media as well as in the operational knowledge management her professional field of activity.

Main focus Internet economy
Website creation
On-line advertisement
Searching machine optimisation (SEO) and searching machine advertisement (SEM)
Main focus Media
journalistic facilities, e.g., newspaper publishing companies, radio companies: Search according to information and supply this for editors. Development and archiving information, e.g., film library of a television broadcasting station.
Main focus operational knowledge management
Knowledge manager (organisation of the whole operational economy of information)
Creation of the web pages in Intranet and Internet
Mediator of information, information broker (e.g., in the area of Management consultancy)
Documentalist: Collecting, these open and file from important documents in bigger enterprises of the free enterprise and supply for the following projects.
Main focus information engineering
Usability Experten/inside one
IT-SYSTEMANALYTIKER/IN for the area of information
IT-Consultant for the area of information
Main focus Library science
Librarian in scientific ebooks as well as school libraries: Management of libraries or team line functions. Development of media by means of cataloguing, acquisition of media, event work, care of IT belonging to library, realisation of trainings.
Main focus Records Management and Archiving
Records manager
Digital / r long time archivist
Enterprise archivist, local archivist / In

The science of information argues with informationellen processes and their support by information systems. She is with a row of neighbouring disciplines which technical fields as enclose like informatics as mind-scientific or social-scientific disciplines like media science or communication science, closely related. This also explains the different Verortung in the sciences at the different colleges. Thus one finds the science of information at some universities in the faculty of philosophy with the linguistics and literature, (for example, at the university of Regensburg), with the linguistics / of Applied linguistics (for example, at the university of Hildesheim), at other colleges in the department of the library science (for example, in the HdM Stuttgart). At the Heinrich Heine's university of Dusseldorf the science of information is strongly connected with the informatics and with the computer linguistics. The advanced technical college of Potsdam offers in the independent department "Sciences of information" a big spectrum of the practically oriented study. The occupation field of an information scientist is accordingly wide also. Employments in traditional facilities like libraries, to archives or documentation places are as usual, as the development in an industrial enterprise, for example, with the main focus of the dialogue creation of user systems, in management consultancies in the mediation of information or of the knowledge management.

Branches
Among the rest, branches of the science of information are:

Communication theory
Management of information and communication management
Information technology and communication technology (information technology and telecommunication technology)
Knowledge organisation and knowledge representation
Competence of information and information Retrieval (search of information, search of information)
Knowledge management
Processing of information, design of information and visual communication
Human machine interaction (human computer interaction), Usability, interaction design
Information society, ethics of information
Logistics of information
Adoption of information (cognitive viewpoint)
Demand analysis of information
Mediation of information (information for the individual need)
Informetrie and Bibliometrie
Economics of information, economy of information, economy of information
Information policy
Right to be informed
Ecology of information and technology result evaluation
Sociology of information
Culture of information
Information and documentation, IuD,
Museum research (Museologie)
Documentation science, archive science, library science, management of information and media economy are subranges of the science of information e-book.

Neighbouring disciplines are:

Journalism science
Communication science
Media science
Web science
The practical use of scientific of information technologies is moved not only in the BID area (library science, of information science and documentation science), but also is moved in the mass media, areas Consulting and consultation, in the finance as well as in the cultural asset area, for example, in museums.

Study and apprenticeship
Science of information is taught at some German-speaking universities and advanced technical colleges as an independent field; nevertheless, the respective stamping of the teaching contents differs according to college. Similar contents are found partially also in adjoining courses of studies as for example of the archive science, library science and documentation science as well as the journalism and communication science.

The lexicography (the word concerning book and correspond) occupied with the construction of dictionaries. The construction of a dictionary is a complicated and mostly protracted process. With all bigger projects the work is explained by several people. She leads to a printed dictionary, an electronic dictionary or to a lexical data bank which can be a basis for both.

Phases during the production of a dictionary
In the planning phase the dictionary object (e.g., the language of Goethe) and the dictionary base (e.g., a body of the texts written by Goethe) is fixed. The necessary working material – body, other literature, computer, software etc. – is provided. Moreover, in the planning phase pattern articles are provided and a guide to whose definitions all involved Lexikografen have to keep. The manual fixes above all the programme of information which is to be provided for every type by description unity.
In the next phase the units which should be worked on as dictionary entries (e.g., 100,000 most frequent words of the German present-day language) are selected.
In the main phase articles are provided for the dictionary. A description object are, besides, the before well-chosen dictionary entries. Besides, the editors rest on the materials of the dictionary base, so documents and on her own knowledge.
The ready articles are reworked in mostly several cycles and are corrected, until every article is sanctioned by the project management.
The last step is the processing of the material for the pressure or for the access above the interface of an electronic dictionary.
After her appearance at the market many online books are reworked over and over again, updated and put on anew. Thus the spelling dictionary of Duden has appeared in 2009 already in the 25th edition and contains approx. 5000 new entries.
Not every project encloses all phases and in this order. Many phases overlap in a concrete project timewise. In particular a previous choice of the units is not often given just with long time projects.

The lexicography has developed in her history own Werkstattsprache which is not necessarily clear for laymen.

The lexikografische process, his products, the dictionaries, her history, structure and use are the objects of the Metalexikografie (dictionary research). However, now and then the scientific employment of dictionaries is also called lexicography.

Related disciplines
The lexicography is related closely, but not identically to the linguistic discipline of the lexicology. The lexicology examines systematically parts of the vocabulary of a language without wanting to encode this, however, completely.

The Encyclopedia deals with the construction of encyclopedic reference books.

Documentalists (Synonymously documentalists from French documentaliste or English documentalist, relatively often in French influenced Switzerland) are of information field forces and have the job to select information and documents by relevance and quality, to open, to process and to make available according to demand. They provide and maintain memory of information, as a rule data banks. They investigate in conventional and electronic information systems and procure springs as for example technical literature, research reports, material information and other relevant documents. They conceive and organise information systems and flows of information (management of information).

Their work, information and documentation (IuD), is marked by the respective specialised scientific background and overlaps with the areas of Archive and library. The job profile is varied; documentation assistant (today qualified job „professional employee / r for media services and news services“), certificate documentalist and scientific documentalist is made up since the about 1960s of the sections.

Documentalists are prevailing as scientific employees in enterprise, university facilities and research facilities, professional information centres, at parties, associations, parliaments and in the public administration active.

Demarcation
Archivists describe the material archived by them primarily according to formal criteria just as librarians who carry out priority a formal capture (e.g., with the help of classifications, systems - possibly to the rules for the alphabetical cataloguing (RAK) or Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC)), while documentalists are specified, in addition, on the material development of the so-called documentary relation units, i.e. with the help of sucked. Dokumentationssprachen (thesauri / catchword systems, abstracts etc.) work and acquire (reason) knowledge or interface competence, e.g., in the areas of Management of information, right to be informed, informatics etc.

Education
Scientific documentalists (English ones: Information Specialist) have finished as a rule a specialised scientific degree at a university and learn the occupation as a work accompanying continuing education measure. Training centre is the institute of information and documentation (IID) in the advanced technical college of Potsdam, formerly as an EYELID (teaching institute of information and documentation) resident in Frankfurt am Main. Professional association is the German society for science of information and practise of information (DGI), formerly German society for documentation (DGD).

General documentalists finish 8-semestrigen course of studies in an advanced technical college which concludes with the name "Certificate documentalist". Some advanced technical colleges also award the title "Certificate-landlord of information". The education encloses, e.g., the acquisition of skills in formal and content development, but also knowledge about the meaning of documentation in science, economy, management and in the media. A practise semestre belongs to the course of studies as a rule.

Beside the general documentalists there are media documentalists (in the journalistic area also "documentation journalist" and medical (Bioscientific) documentalists. The latter go through a similar education like ersteren, have meanwhile a scientific-medical subject main focus, e.g., anatomy, pathology, pharmacology, clinical chemistry, botany ebooks.

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