Literatur and ebooks

28-04-2014, 14:13Print
The concept Horror literature calls a literary genre whose object is the portrayal of fear-giving and often supernatural events. Besides, come to the fore predominantly the terrible motives of the action (monster, undead, demons, distortions, tortures etc.) or centre.

Genre definitions
According to the Dictionary of Literary Terms and Literary Theory the word Horror of the Latin verb horrere comes for the hair high-level standing position leave, tremble, (itself) shake off after which the horror history is a history which shocks the reader or frightens and, perhaps, even feelings the loathing or the hatred with him releases. Main topics of the horror literature are according to the Dictionary a murder, suicide, torture, fear, madness, ghosts, vampires, doubles, Succubi, Incubi, Poltergeister, demoniacal pacts, diabolical obsession, exorcism, witchcraft, Voodoo, Lykanthropie and the Makabere.

Another concept for horror literature which is used in the encyclopaedia of the horror literature is Weird Fiction what translates possibly strange, strange, creepy or uncanny prose poetry means, the curve stretches further and therefore encloses more text kinds than the concept Horror. The horror history matters above all to the development of the modern short history; in particular Edgar Allan Poe was high-powered in this area. Other meaning receives them by her connection with the shower novel (English Gothic Novel), to the black romanticism, to the minds and ghosts history and with the thriller.

In the horror literature the borders of that are explored what to people to do or are able to experience. The abysses of the human soul are investigated, the degree of fear, hysteria and insanity, the people could endure, the dark side of the soul is lighted up. She deals with the hell and this is only the more or less universal symbol of an extreme condition, as for example deep grief, an overpowering feeling of an irreparable loss, acute fear, irrationelle foreboding or physical pains. According to the Dictionary this draught of the internal hell developed in the 16th century where it was looked as a part of the consciousness – as a subjective, internal, psychological, personal and individual spring by fright and terror, as a chaos of a disturbed and obsessed mind.

The development of the horror genre is a process, in the person try to manage with fears of the death, the uncertain life after the death, the punishment, the darkness, the bad person, the power and the destruction. Thus the authors of the late Middle Ages already devoted themselves in particular to both subjects of the Ubi sunt and the Danse Macabre by which they anticipated later developments. As a discussion with the death Andreas Nohl also wants to understand the horror history in his subtitles to The iron shroud. Stephen King lay a similar perception in Danse Macabre and H. P. Lovecraft in The literature of the horror: Both see in the horror literature a genre, which the reader with his fears confronts with which to every person being inherent fear of the darkness, the death, the stranger and the loss of control. This argumentation takes over loans from the antique drama theory. There the spectators have to go by violent feeling excitements (fear and fright, later with Lessing: Fear and compassion) a psychic cleaning (catharsis) find out. The argumentation of the literature specialist Hans Mayer also corresponds to him in The unhappy consciousness: In a short excursion about William Beckfords Vathek denies Mayer that it concerns with Vathek a horror novel, because the author aims not at the excitement of fear, but chilly and indifferently describes.

Allocation problems and genre combinations

Literary critic Douglas E. Winter stood the thesis, with the horror literature trade not around a type of ebooks. For him the horror ebooks is generally no genre, like, besides, Science Fiction or the western, it concerns rather a feeling; at least the latter statement is also supported by the Dictionary of Literary Terms and Literary Theory. Besides, it is left after winter to no certain author to generate this feeling with his reader whom one calls general-linguistically horror authors, happen as for example in today's time with Stephen King or Thomas Harris. Rather authors of all cultures and epochs would have dealt over and over again with the subjects of the fear and power; as examples he calls in particular James Joyce, Ernest Hemingway, Nathaniel Hawthorne and Carlos Fuentes whose works are to be added partially also of the horror literature. Against winter thesis the fact speaks that one needs to assign works only to the horror genre if the horror motives, horror figures, horror moods are in the foreground etc. as those – and not possibly to them leading there or from them to outgoing entanglements. Besides, it is natural that subjects like fear and power are left to no certain author's blow. In winter according to untenable thesis all the other conceivable genres would also have to be explained like Science Fiction or western for trifling, because authors can allow to land time traveller in the wild west – or vice versa: West heroes in the future send – and a lot more. If the charasteristic features of several genres keep in a work the balance, it concerns a genre combination as for example horror western, SciFi horror, horror crime film, adventure horror or SciFi horror comedy.

Demarcation of horror and Science Fiction
The drawing of an unequivocal border between horror and Science Fiction is difficult in some cases relatively, because there are many texts which are counted to both genres and were vital for the development of both genres. Mostly the science fiction elements are only the trigger for the respective frights of the horror stories. Thus, e.g., Mary Shelley Frankenstein is often seen as a founder of the science fiction history, however, belongs indisputable also to the horror genre. Same is valid for Stevensons Dr. Jekyll and Mr Hyde. With H. G. Wells reached the mixture of both genres a climax, which is why these novels are often called science fiction horror, SciFi horror or SF horror; on the novels of Richard Matheson (I In Laying, The Shrinking One) and H. P. Lovecraft (The Colour Out of Space) also applies this. In particular with modern zombie's stories (e.g., in Stephen Kings Cell, in George A. Romeros zombie's filming and in the Resident Evil video games) is mostly given a scientific reason like cosmic radiation or a virus; nevertheless, the stories are counted exclusively to the horror genre, because the horror aspects predominate.

Signs of the horror literature
Frights, horror and disgust
According to Stephen King there are three basic kinds of the horror which are applied in horror stories and are combined if necessary:

Frights: The sporadically generated fear of the stranger, before that what, well, lurks behind the door (e.g., in The simian paw) is rather astonishing from authors, sudden and often applicable, however, fades away relatively quickly.
Horror: The longer stopping fear of the prodigious manifests itself only slowly and then accepts a more or less firm form, possibly of a monster (e.g., in Shelleys Frankenstein) or of an intolerable noise (e.g., in Poes The perfidious heart).
Disgust: The directly felt fear of the unappetizing, the feeling the loathing, overcomes the reader or spectator immediately with repellent phenomena like Gewürm, vermin, to webs, mucus, poison, stench, putrefaction, feces, innards, injuries, illnesses, distortions, tortures, perversions of all kind etc. the most extreme disgust probably causes undisguised (every now and then excessive) representation of explicit scenes of violence, often death scenes As in the film genres Splatter and Gore which stand in the tradition of the Paris Théâtre you Grand Guignol a lot of blood can flow with, mostly by separating from limbs (how into Saw or alien).
The encyclopaedia of the horror literature calls the following five signs for the allocation of a history to the horror literature in his preface:

The supernatural
realistically described horror (in the so-called valley of terror)
psychological horror components (e.g., nightmares, portrayals of insanity and/or obsession)
Science fiction-horror components
Absurd, droll, surreal, black humor
Horror and sociology
According to Stephen King horror stories (independent of the medium) are always very popular, however, before all things in segments of about 10 or 20 years really successfully what he associates with political and economic crises as for example to the Second World War, the worldwide economic crisis or the Vietnam war. Then the social fears of the people are taken up in the horror literature (or in the horror film) or also by the reader projected.

In every horror novel it gives or several "monsters" from which the fright of the history originates and the "monster" is to be seen with most horror stories more in the figurative sense and can accept numerous shapes. Stephen King distinguishes in Danse Macabre five archetypes on which nearly every modern horror history is based:

The werewolf: The „dark side“ of the person appears and tempts him into awful Gräueltaten, the mental change goes along with a physical change, namely of the conversion to the animal shape of the werewolf. Nevertheless, King also sees masks and disguising as a physical change, which is why he also hide Norman Bates from Psycho who disguises himself as his mother, as well as the Scream killers who is borrowed from herself behind a mask, Edvard Munchs The shout, understands as werewolves. As a prototype King Robert Louis Stevensons The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde (1886) sees by which King puts on a par the motives of the werewolf and the double.
The vampire: As a charasteristic feature of the vampire King sees cannibalism for which the blood drinking shows a symbol, which is why according to this definition also zombies from the principle are vampires. The fact that George A. Romero calls a vampire's novel as a main inspiration for his zombie's films with Richard Mathesons I Am Laying, this thesis underpins. With Matheson the background of the vampire goes away from the mythological-religious and gets with a virus a scientific background what founded the modern form of the zombie and which is why the novel is also counted to the Science Fiction. The prototype is according to King of Bram Stoker Dracula.
The thing: King in particular artificially, by scientific processes calls thing created creatures, as for example Frankenstein's monster or the dinosaurs in Michael Crichton's dino's park, but also other anonymous beings, mostly extraterrestrial species like The Blob (1958) or The thing from another world (1951). As a prototype he calls Mary Shelley Frankenstein.
The ghost: The mind of a dead who returns from him On the other side and provides in the life on earth for fright, known above all from the shower fiction of the Gothic Fiction. As a prototype King immediately calls several Gothic Novels: Horace Walpoles The Castle of Otranto, Matthew Gregory Lewis' The Monk and C. R. Maturins Melmoth the travellers.
The place of the bad person: A house in which it haunts, or in which Bad manifests itself (Spukhaus). King calls no prototype, however, he calls as examples of Shirley Jacksons The Haunting of Hill House as well as his own Roman Shining. Mostly the house is an old castle (Spukschloss) or an empty, decaying mansion in which mostly a murder or a similar awful incident has happened, indeed, a modern house can become an existing house from 13 minds also the centre of the Spuks, as for example in Anne Rivers Siddons The House Next Door or completely of glass and metal.
The Dictionary of Literary Terms and Literary Theory lists, in addition, however, exactly like King, as figures of the horror literature the vampire, the werewolf and the ghost, the list still complements around the following figures:

The devil whose prototype of the Bible as well as the Jewish-Christian mythology is descended and his best known and most important literary treatments Dante Alighieris La Divina Commedia (1321) and John Miltons Paradise Lost (1667) are.
The double who shows the bad side (comparably with in Sigmund Freud's psychoanalysis) of the respective character. As a prototype Adelbert von Chamissos Peter Schlemihls wondrous history (1813) is called, in addition, from meaning for this literary motive The elixirs of the devil (1815), James Hoggs The Private Memoirs and Confessions of a Justified Sinner (1824), Edgar Allan Po William Wilson (1839), Fjodor Dostojewskis of The doubles (are Russian ETA of Hoffmann: Двойник, Dvojnik, in 1846), Robert Louis Stevensons The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde (1886) as well as Oscar wild The Picture of Dorian Gray (1891).
A parasitäre creature which lives on body and/or mind of a character, for example, Lamia or a Succubus and such demons overlap with the figure of the vampire, because above all the Lamien are also looked as vampires.


Overview and development of the genre
Origins
The subject of the supernatural in the farthest sense finds itself at the latest since the Romance and the mystery plays of the Middle Ages in the European literature. It manifests itself in his pure form, so as an exclusive representation of fear-giving and supernatural circumstances, however, first in the English romanticism.

As the first horror history often becomes about 170 written Latin Roman Metamorphosen (also: The golden donkey, in the original Metamorphoses or Asinus aureus) of the Apuleius respected. Indeed, elements of the supernatural or horror are already found in Homer's Odyssey (about 8. Cent. B.C.) as well as with the biblical stories contained in the old testament of Hiob and king Saul. Elements of the horror appear later also with Seneca, in Vergils Aeneid (29-19 B.C.), in Lucans Pharsalia (61-65), with Statius, with Silius Italicus, with Valerius Flaccus, with Lucian, in Petronius' Satyricon, as well as in the Gilgamesch epic, in which Eddas, the Icelander's sagas as well as in other Icelandic saga poetries. Another known early representative of the genre is written the Old-English epic Beowulf (around 700).

Dante Alighieris La Divina Commedia (writes in 1321) is valid in some springs also as the first horror history. Also the Pardoner's to valley from Geoffrey Chaucers The Canterbury Tales (about 1387) can be calculated to the early horror literature. Elements of the supernatural which is often a sign of the horror history appear in the 17th century then, among the rest, with Shakespeare Hamlet (1603) and Macbeth (1623) as well as in John Miltons Paradise Lost (1667) and Christopher Marlow's tragic history of the doctor Faustu (1604), later also in Johann Wolfgang von Goethe fist (1808). Already in the sphere of the English romanticism The Rime of the Ancient of marine (1798), Friedrich Schiller Romanfragment of The visionaries and Novalis' hymns belong Goethe's ballad of the erl-king (1782), singer Antonella (1795), The bride of Corinth (1797) and The magic apprentice (1797), Samuel Taylor Coleridges to epic poem to the night (1800) on.

Besides are able also most fairy tales which were collected by Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm under the title Child fairy tale and House fairy tale and were published in 1812-1815, under it Hansel and Gretel or Red Riding Hood as well as the fairy tale coming from the French language area The small thumbstall (in the original Le Petit Poucet) when early horror stories are looked.


Illustration of 1831 to Shelleys Frankenstein (1818)
Gothic Novel: The shower novel
The literature of the outgoing 18th century in England reacted to the progressive ideals of the preceding time and dealt with the supernatural and the ghastly what contributed first to the origin of the Graveyard Poetry, to itself with skulls and coffins, epitaph and Worms (in German: Skull and coffins, inscriptions on a gravestone and worms) occupies (as an example if Thomas of Gray Elegy Written is called in a Country Church yard) and later to the Gothic Novel or also Gothic Romance, to German: Shower novel, led. These novels generate her disastrous atmosphere by sombre sceneries, subterranean vaults, inexplicable events and many other always returning set pieces. Gothic means medieval and therefore at the same time also violently, bloodthirstily and barbarically. Another important element is the so-called Gothic Villain, one of the typical protagonists of the shower novel: a highly educated, in itself the torn and impulsive shape which is able of the good like to the bad person on account of the internal inner conflict, however, over and over again to the bad person goes to ruin.

Typical representatives of this epoch are possibly Horace Walpole with his work The Castle of Otranto (1764) whose subtitle A Gothic gave story at the same time also to this genre his name, Ann Radcliffes The Mysteries of Udolpho (1794) and The Italian (1797) or Matthew Gregory Lewis' Roman The Monk, John William Polidoris The Vampyre (1819), one of the first vampire's fiction, C. R. Maturins Melmoth the travellers (1820) as well as in the USA Washington Irvings The Laying of Sleepy Hollow (1820), Thomas De Quinceys autobiographical book Confessions of in English Opium-Eater (in 1821-1822), James Hoggs The Private Memoirs and Confessions of a Justified Sinner (1824) and, finally, also Mary Shelley with Frankenstein, or The Modern Prometheus. Of Jane Austen Roman Northanger Abbey (1798) a parody on the known shower fiction explains.

In the German-speaking space the following works of meaning are before all things for the horror ebooks: Christian Heinrich Spiess The weever (in 1791-1792), Heinrich von Kleists The begging woman of Lucerne (1797), Ludwig Tiecks blond Eckbert (1797), The runic mountain (1804), Achim von Arnim primogeniture men (1819), Adelbert von Chamissos Peter Schlemihls wondrous history (1814) and Friedrich de la Motte Fouqué's undine (1811).

Victorian epoch

A poster from the 1880th to Stevensons The to rope Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde

Illustration (1894) of Aubrey Beardsley to Poes The Black Cat (1843)
However, also in the Victorian epoch the representatives who must be added more or less of the horror and shower e-books are found in spite of the slope to the realism over and over again. Thus Emily Brontë's fury herring Heights (1847) can be absolutely arranged in this area, exactly like Jane Eyre (1847) by her sister Charlotte. As the most standing out representative of the Victorian time is to be called, finally, The to rope Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde (1886) of Robert Louis Stevenson who connects typical elements of the black romanticism with the naturalism of the Late-Victorian time, while he tries to give a scientific background to the at first supernaturally appearing events. Also of Bram Stoker Dracula (1897) is to be called here.

Other important novels from the Victorian epoch are Charles Dickens ghostly Christmas stories A Christmas Carol and The Chimes (1843), as well as his last, incomplete novels The secret of Edwin Drood (1870), Joseph Sheridan Le Fanus Uncle Silas (1864) and Carmilla (1872), Wilkie Collins' The Woman in White (1860) and The Moonstone (1868), Oscar wild The Picture of Dorian Gray (1891), W. W. Jacobs' The Monkey's Paw (1902), M. R. James' ghost's stories Count Magnus (1904) and oh, Whistle And I'll Come to You, micron of Loading!, Arnold Bennetts The Lost of cities (1904), The Ghost: A Fantasia in Modern Times (1907), The Glimpse: In Adventure of the soul (1909), Arthur Conan Doyle The Hound of the Baskervilles (1902) and The Lost World (1912), as well as in the USA Henry James' The Turn of the Screw (1898). Also Nobel Prize Laureate for e-books Rudyard Kipling dealt in some works with elements of the horror, as for example to Wiedergängern, to minds and Lykanthropie, examples of it are The phantom Rhikshaw (1885), The Return of Imay (1891), The Mark of the Beast (1890) and They (1904).

In Germany drew the attention before all things ETA Hoffmann with The elixirs of the devil to (1815) and his night pieces, under it The sandy man (1817), to itself – also Joseph von Eichendorff with The marble picture (1818) as well as Jeremias Gotthelf with The black spider (1847) and Theodor Storm with The mould rider (1888).

With H. G. Then Wells arose the mixture of horror and Science Fiction, he took in The Iceland of Dr. Moreau (1898), The Invisible One (1900), The Being of the Worlds (1901), The ridge Men in the Moon (1901) and The time Machine of (1904) things like travelling by the time or the universe and genetic experiments beforehand and she mixed with horror elements. The popularity stopping till this day of Wells' stories appears with the help of numerous filmings, at last by Steven Spielbergs Krieg of the worlds (2005).

In France are before all things Honoré de Balzacs La peau de Chagrin (1831), Le livre mystique (1835), Melmoth réconcilié (1835), a continuation of C. R. Maturins history, Contes drolatiques (1837) and Théophile Gautiers Mademoiselle de Maupin (1835) and Le Roman de la momie (1858), Charles Baudelair's book of poems Les Fleurs you spot (in 1857-1868) as well as gas tone of Leroux' Le Fantôme de l'Opéra (1910) important representatives of the horror e-books.

The most prominent representative of the American horror e-books of the 19th century is Edgar Allan Poe. With his numerous short stories, as for example Ms. Found in a Bottle (1833), Ligeia (1838), The case of the House of Usher (1839), The Masque of the Red Death (1842), The Pit and the Pendulum (1842), The to Tell valley Heart (1843), The Black Cat (1843) and The Cask of Amontillado (1846), to his only Roman The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym of Nantucket to (1838) and his probably best known poems The Raven (1845) he is valid as a founder of the modern horror history. Poe was also the first one which allowed to flow in psychological elements onto his stories.

Besides Nathaniel Hawthorne has also written some works which must be added of the horror e-books as for example The Young Goodman Brown (1835) or The House of Seven Gables (1851). Finally, in the late 19th century Robert W. Chambers with The King is found in Yellow (1895).

As the most important representatives of the fantastic e-book and also at the same time the horror e-book in Russia are valid Nikolai Gogol, among the rest, to his best known and most high-powered works belong: Wij (also Vij, in Russian: Вий, in 1835), The nose (in Russian: повесть, Нос, in 1836) and The coat (in Russian: Шинель, Schinel, in 1842) and Alexei Konstantinowitsch Tolstoy, a cousin Leo Tolstoy, with the stories The family of the vampire (in Russian: Встреча через триста лет, Sem'ya Vurdalaka, in 1839) and The vampire (in Russian: Упырь, Upyr, in 1841).

20th and 21st century

Illustration of the fictive divinity Cthulhu, in H. P. Lovecrafts horror e-book a big role plays.
As a more importantly American representative of the beginning 20th century is, finally, H. P. To call Lovecraft which argues in his essay Supernatural horror in e-book (1936) also with the theoretical aspects of the horror e-book. His works (among other things The Colour out of Space, in 1927, as well as the Cthulhu myth fiction) contain immediate allusions on Poe. Besides they live on the one hand on the pseudo mythology created by Lovecraft, on the other hand, also – like the works of Hawthorne – from the puritanical atmosphere of new narrow country.

Important works of the horror literature of 20. Of century in Great Britain and the USA are laying The Open Window of Saki (1917), Walter de la Mares Seatons Aunt (1921) and A Recluse (1926), William Faulkners A Rose for Emily (1930), Ray Bradbury's stories Dark Carnival (1947) and Something Wicked this Way Comes (1962), Shirley Jackson's short history The Lottery (1948) as well as her novels The Sundial (1958) and The Haunting of Hill House (1959), William Goldings The Lord of the Tiling (1954), Richard Matheson Roman I Am (1954) who marks the change of the classical vampire to the modern zombie, The Shrinking One (1956) and Brightly House (1971) which mix once more horror and Science Fiction, Jack Finney's invasion of the body Snatchers (1956), Roald Dahls sloping and black-humorous stories Someone Like You (1953) and Kiss, Kiss (1960), Daphne you Mauriers The Birds (1952), Don't look Now (1971), Robert Bloch Psycho (1959), Ira Levins Rosemary''s baby (1967), The Stepford Wives (1972), William Blattys The Exorcist (1971), Ian McEwans The Cement Garden (1978), as well as Anne Rice’ vampire's fiction Interview With the vampires (1976) and The queen of the Damned (1988) and Bret Easton Ellis' Roman American Psycho (1992) who was indicated in Germany on account of the explicit representation of violence for some time. Thomas Harris created with the brilliant scientist and crude cannibals Hannibal Lecter one of the best known modern rogues who is the central figure of four books up to now: Red dragon (1981), The silence of the lambs (1988), Hannibal (1999) and Hannibal Rising (2006). Elements of the horror, as for example werewolves, vampires and ghosts, are also found in Joanne K. Rowling's Harry Potter's row (in 1997-2007) as well as in the guard's row of the Russian author Sergei Lukjanenko (1998-2007).

Also the literary genre of the Dystopie often contains elements of the horror. Examples of it have burnt the room 101 and the events there in George Orwells Dystopie Nineteen Eighty-Four (1984) (1949), the exercise of the most crude power as well as the ghastly "healing process" of the protagonist Alex who are hidden behind the curtain of the artificial language Nadsat in Anthony Burgess' A Clockwork Orange (1962) or the fact, that in Ray Bradbury's Fahrenheit 451 not only books, but also people with living body by the "fire brigade" and enemies of the system were hunted by mechanical bloodhounds through the streets and are poisoned.

In the German-speaking space (1919) elements of the supernatural or the horror appear, among the rest, with Franz Kafka in The conversion (1915) and with in the penal colony. In addition, the following authors and her stories are worth mentioning: Hanns Heinz Ewers' The spider (1908) and mandrakes. The history of a living being (1911), Karl Hans Strobls Eleagabal Kuperus (1910), Gustav Meyrinks of The German of petty bourgeois Wunderhorn (1913), The Golem (1915), Georg Heyms The ship (1913), Alfred Döblins of The knights Bluebeard (1911), The assistant (1911), Willy Seidels The magic lantern of Mr. Zinkeisen (1930), Gerhart Hauptmanns The phantom (1927), The sea miracle. An unlikely history (1934) and The top heel (1934), Hans Erich Nossacks Nekyia. Report of a survivor (1947), interview with the death and At the latest in November (1955), Ilse Aichingers The tied up (1953) and reflecting history (1954) as well as Marie Luise Kaschnitz' bird rock. Uncanny stories (1969) and Patrick Süskinds The perfume (1985).

Stephen King is since his debut with Carrie (1974) the best known, most successful and most high-powered horror author. Count to his best known novels, among the rest, Salem's plumb line (1975), The Shining (1977), The state (in 1978/1990), Cujo (1981), Pet Sematary (1983), It (1986), The Dark Helping (1989), Bag of Bones (1998), The Girl Who Loved Tom Gordon (1999), Dreamcatcher (2001) and Cell (2006) as well as the dark tower cycle (in 1982-2004). In addition, with Danse Macabre (1981) King has written a lot of notable theoretical work about horror literature, horror films and horror radio plays.

Horror authors of the present
Among the rest, to the topical authors count (internationally): Isabel Allende, Clive Barker, Jorge Luis Borges, J. G. Ballard, Jack Cady, Ramsey Campbell, John Crowley, Harlan Ellison, John Farris, Christopher Fowler, Ray Garron, Charles L. Grant, Dave Gore, James Herbert, Brian Keene, Stephen King, Dean Koontz, Richard Laymon, Fritz Leiber, John Ajvide Lindqvist, Brian Lumley, Graham Masterton, Patrick McGrath, Kim Newman, Joyce Carol Oates, John Saul, John Shirley, Dan Simmons, Curt Siodmak, R. L. Stine, Peter Straub, Thomas Ligotti and FOLLOWING Paul Wilson – as well as in the German-speaking space: G. Arentzen, Tobias Bachmann, Cornelia Funke, Marc Gore, Markus Heitz, Wolfgang Hohlbein, Rainer Innreiter, Markus Kastenholz, Markus K. Korb, Thomas punch, Jens Lossau, Christoph Marzi, Michael Siefener, Painting S. Sembten, Torsten Sträter, Uwe Voehl, Vincent Voss, Earl Warren and Wrath James White.

Novel notebooks and comics
Since beginning of the 20th century the horror and horror literature is one of the popular genres in the notebook novel area. Especially successful examples for this are: John Sinclair, Tony Ballard or professor Zamorra.

Also in the area of the comic there are numerous rows which belong to the horror genre, as for example from Neil Gaiman the written The Sandman row which appeared between 1988 and 1996 with comics DC, the bright blazer row (particularly famously by the filming Constantine from 2005 with Keanu Reeves in the leading role) as well as the Swamp Thing row.

Media interaction
Horror literature and horror film
In the course of the 20th century the mixture of horror film and horror literature also appeared with the origin of the film: In the beginning particularly "classical" horror stories were filmed, under it Dr. Jekyll and Mr Hyde (1920), Dracula (1931) and Frankenstein (1931). Besides, one processed later more and more horror fiction of the present with the special means of the cinematography. From the end of the 20th century screenplay productions were the most successful predominantly.
Horror literature and horror video games
The influence of the horror literature on the development of the horror video games is unmistakeable. In particular the genre of the Survival of horror often orientates itself by traditional motives of the horror literature, in particular of the Gothic Fiction. Thus the action often happens in an old and desolate building, as for example to a mansion (examples are Spencer Mansion and the police station of Raccoon city in Resident Evil, the Derceto Mansion in Alone in the Dark, the Clock Tower from the play row of the same name or the villa Himuro in Project Zero) which resembles the Spukschlössern from Walpoles The Castle of Otranto or Radcliffes The Mysteries of Udolpho. In addition, vampires and zombies, exact are to be found before all things like in numerous books, often as an opponent in video games.

Some plays are also based directly on horror literature, e.g., the Alone-in-the-Dark-Reihe on H builds. P. Lovecrafts the Cthulhu myth on in which the actors are not confronted with inexpressible, for the healthy mind to detectable monsters. The play Call of Cthulhu also refers to this myth: Dark of corner of the Earth which plays in the fictive place Innsmouth and calls Lovecrafts myth already in the title. The known horror author Clive Barker has written even specially for a video game a background history, the result is Clive Barker Undying.

Literary finding objects in horror video games
In particular with Alone in the Dark and Resident Evil documents within the play play a big role, because the player over and over again must gather letters, diaries, notes, protocols etc., because they create clarity about the events. Is especially worth mentioning above all a fictive diary, the so-called Keeper's Diary, from the first Resident Evil part ([1]) which describes the gradual conversion of a person, the Keepers, in a zombie and whose from entry to entry more and more simple growing language shows the spiritual decay and the dehumanisation of the Keeper. The diary ends with the description as the Keeper eats his own bit by bit dropping skin malice and pieces of meat.

Literary references in horror video games
Resident Evil row

The Cerberus in a drawing of William Blake, an inspiration for the zombie's dogs in Resident Evil
Some plays also contain direct allusions on authors or works of the horror literature, are based, among the rest, most creatures against which one must sit down in the different Resident Evil plays to the weir on mythological figures: Examples of it are the Chimaira, the Cerberus, the Neptune, which Nemesis, of the Nosferatu, the Nyx and Pluto and of the Nautilus to Jules Vernes Vingt mille lieues sous les mers and the Bandersnatch to Lewis Carrolls known nonsense poems Jabberwocky and The Hunting of the Snark (Beware the Jubjub bird, and shun / The frumious Bandersnatch!) reminds.

Alone-in-the-Dark-Reihe

The Necronomicon – one of the fictive books which one must read in Alone in the Dark.
The name of the central figure of the play row, Edward Carnby, is a reference to John Carnby, a figure from the Cthulhu myth story written by Clark Ashton Smith Return of the Sorcerer.

In Alone in the Dark one finds a translation of Homer's Odyssey, the tips valuable for the player for defeating of two opponents, more exactly: of two Medusas, delivers. The Necronomicon, the work inexpressible cults and the De Vermis Mysteriis (en:De Vermis Mysteriis), like the whole play, on H belong to the other books which one finds in Alone in the Dark, among the rest. P. Lovecrafts stories are based. Moreover, it is reported in a book that the name of the mansion, Decerto, one of many names shows for the divinity Shub-Niggurath – with Lovecraft a sort of dark fertility goddess. The name De Certo appears as a surname of certain Judas De Certo who is described as an evil clairvoyant, even as a demon, in the fourth part of the play row then once more.

In a document in Alone in the Dark 2 it is reported that one of the pirates against whom one must fight called Frederick DeWitt, an affair with the marchioness from O … had: an allusion on Heinrich von Kleists novella of the same name. In addition, the ship of this damned pirate's crew is called Flying Dutchman: an allusion on a mythological shape. Another document is entitled with Me defeated Voodoo – unpublished chapter of the „manuscript in the bottle“ and cites therefore the title of a known short history of Edgar Allan Poe which is based again on the legend of the flying Dutchman.


The fictive Ctulhu divinity Shub-Niggurath, also known as a Decerto, gives in Alone in the Dark of the Decerto Mansion her name.
In Alone in the Dark 4: The New Nightmare compares the protagonist Aline the scientist Alan Morton to Dr. Moreau – an allusion on the history The island of Dr. Moreau of the English author H. G. Wells in whom a mad researcher tries to make animal being people by means of cruel experiments. Moreover, Obed Morton compares in his diary which one must read during the play, the workroom of his grandfather Jeremy Morton with Ali Baba's cave. The mind of the already mentioned De Certo appears to the player Aline in a mirror which asks in addition to come by the mirror, just as Alice has done it – an allusion on Lewis Carroll Alice behind the mirrors (as with Silent Hill, see next below). Moreover, one finds as Aline in a space a book of Jean-François Champollion who laid the foundation-stone for the scientific investigation of dynastic Egypt with deciphering of the first hieroglyphs on the stone of Rosetta. To finish the play, one must search the statues of seven fictive Indian's gods Hecatonchires, Gilamesh, Ouphenos, Anticoalt, Heliopaner, Melacanthe and Hemicles and find. At least the names of both first mentioned can be explained by allusions: Hecatonchires leads on the Hekatoncheiren of the Greek mythology, Gilamesh on the Gilgamesch epic, one of the oldest traditional literary poetries of the humanity and the most famous literary work of Babylonia.


In Alone in the Dark 5 one receives the news of a mysterious light bringer.
At the beginning of Alone in the Dark 5 the French poet Charle Baudelaire is cited: The Devil's foremost deception is convincing you that hey doze exist. (In German: The biggest deception of the devil consists in persuading you of the fact that he does not exist.) Later one receives news from a certain Lightbringer, so light bringer, whereupon the figure Sarah to the Carnby, and therefore also explains to the player, that light bringer in Latin Lucifer means. It is confirmed in the course of the play that one deals with Lucifer personally. This is in search of the stone of the manners which he has created in the reality of the play himself to save with it his soul by all age.

By a prophetic poem becomes also clear that Carnby and Sarah have got by no means by chance in her present situation: The hands of Venus wants shape the lure to this door. / While Mars wants fight and bring the key bake to the core. (In German possibly: Venus' hands soon form the castle to this door. / fights during Mars and the key brings back for it.) then It turns out that Sarah shows the Venus, while Carnby the role of Mars comes up.

As already further on top mentions, Call of Cthulhu builds: Dark of corner of the Earth directly on Lovecrafts to myth of the same name on. Call of Cthulhu is one of the best known stories Lovecrafts, the play orientates itself as much as possible by Lovecrafts history Shadow over Innsmouth, which is why also figures of this history, as for example the drunkard Zadok Allen appear. Zadok explains to the player if he gets for it a bottle of alcohol, besides, something about the past of Innsmouth and uses partially even the same text like in the history. Some scenes also play in the Arkham Asylum, Lovecrafts of infamous nervous clinic. In addition, the divinities Dagon and hydra also appear as a final opponent. The book of the Dagon must be used to the deciphering of different inscriptions and the solution of different riddles. Cthulhu itself steps, however, against expectation, in action, is not with numerous statues and in different texts, prayers and similar omnipräsent. An important role for the action plays the big race of Yith; the older beings are mentioned in a document, exactly like the Mi-Go which are called in the epilogue. As an other final opponent a Shoggoth appears. The deep beings belong to the most often emergent opponents of the play ebook.

One of the prison inmates in Innsmouth, Henry, complains history of the same name The of advice in the embankment) about The rats in the walls (an allusion on Lovecrafts. Henry shows serious psychic problems, presumably insanity, and hits his head intentionally against the wall of his cell, what also Dr. Halsey in Lovecrafts history Herbert West – Reanimator (Ger.: Herbert West – The Wiedererwecker) acts. A Greek version of the Pnakotischen manuscripts, an issue of the inexpressible cults and the book Eibon are to be found in the play. A press clipping leads on the short history written by Lovecraft The Music of Erich Zann.

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