28-04-2014, 15:44PrintSupernatural horror in Literature is an essay resulted in 1926-1927 of the US-American, above all in the horror genre of known author Howard Phillips Lovecraft. The article has Charakteristik and history of the horror literature on the subject.
As a spring of the horror Lovecraft identifies the fear of the stranger. At the same time he looks at this fear as an anthropological constant and concludes that the stories originating from it are to be found everywhere in the history and also shall always be found.
Definition of the horror genre
The essential sign of the horror is after knowledge of the author neither the literary form, nor the action, still any intention of the author, but only the sensation of the fright which causes the work in the recipient: "The one test of the really weird is this - wether or not there be excited in the reader a profound sense of dread." In German: »The only test criterion for real uncanny is this – whether in the reader a profound feeling is caused by fear or not. «The spreading of the horror is limited according to Lovecraft by two factors: On the one hand only a small part of the humanity is receptive to this kind of the story because own not all necessary imagination. On the other hand, the ability in the horror with the nationality or race affiliation varies.
History of the horror literature
The horror appears in the opinion of the author already in the oldest known stories. He accepts different forms, in the classical antiquity possibly prose, with the northern myths against it those of the verse. As own genre of the modern literature the horror with The castle of Otranto (1764) of Horace Walpole appears and develops following that. He can be looked as an actual art, however, only from the appearance of the works Edgar Allan Poes. Lovecraft looks as a Poes achievement to have led the psychological base of the horror recognised and the genre of the before blind obeyed literary conventions too till then to unknown realism – a development which is continued by the authors after Poe.
First the essay appeared in 1927 in from W. Paul Cook published The Recluse. Later he appears in The fantasy fan series of 1933-1935 in revised version and afterwards, among the rest, in H.P.Lovecraft coach 2 Dagon And Other Macabre of valley from 1965. S.T. Joshi brought out with The annotated Supernatural horror in Literature a commented form of the essay.
The shower literature (in English Gothic fiction) or the shower novel (in English Gothic novel) is a literary genre of the Phantastik which originated at the middle of the 18th century in England and experienced his blossom at the beginning of the 19th century.
The English shower novel
With The castle of Otranto Horace Walpole wrote in 1764 the first Gothic Novel and founded a new genre which took pleasure from the second half of the 18th century of huge popularity. Richard Hurd described the new direction in his Letters on Chivalry and Romance as "Gothic Romance" in which he found something which is „of the perception of a genius and the purpose of the poetry in special measure appropriately“. He underpinned his praise with an example from the architecture:
„If an architect misses a Gothic construction in Greek rules, he finds nothing but shapelessness. However, the Gothic architecture has her own rules, and if one examines them after these, one finds out that she has her own qualities, just as the Greek one.“
The rise of the shower e-book hangs close together with an enlargement of the aesthetics concept which discovers once the different variants of the nature and her effect on the person, on the other hand their dangerous and uncanny sides since Joseph Addison's Spectator essay about "imagination". Hence, the enlarged aesthetics does not refer any more only to the Arcadian scenery, but also to the sombre and the elated.
The theoretical pioneering work for this paradigm change had performed above all Edmund Burke with his writing A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the sublime and Beautiful (1747). For the shower e-book the dark and elated is also vital in the sense that the concept of the person does not place special emphasis any more only on the side of the reason, the balanced social behaviour and an aesthetic expression coming up to them, but also the irrational, sombre and destructive trains I, so that an up to now unknown soul scenery arises in the tension of person, nature and culture, as it were an artistic-literary Exemplifikation of the „dialectic of the clarification“ avant la lettre. Known representatives of the anglo-saxon shower e-book are (in chronological result with her main works).
About 1825 the period of bloom of the Gothic Novel was over. However, numerous motives of the shower novel were taken up by the ebook of the romanticism. There originated the shower romanticism or black romanticism. Against it authors stood like Edgar Allan Poe and Wilkie Collins at the beginning of the development of the criminal novel which falls back in his stamping as a Mystery thriller strongly on motives of the shower novel. In the third direction the development moved there to the modern horror ebook with representatives like Howard Phillips Lovecraft or Stephen King.
The black romanticism (also shower romanticism or negative romanticism) is an undercurrent which arose within the romanticism at the end of the 18th century.
The black romanticism distinguishes itself by the fact that she particularly stresses irrational, melancholy trains and is also from the creation of human insanity and from the "bad person" entranced, in turning away from the clarification led by the reason and as a reaction to the fright nit of the French revolution. Artists and authors of the current deal with the reverse of the human being and her works show a sombre and resignativen or even makaberen, dreadful-demoniacal to satanic character. A refined-decadent aestheticism often serves for the portrayal of esoteric-excessive behaviour patterns and fantastic, absurd phenomena in the erotic-sensitive and carried too far morbid.
She found in the literature, but also in the pedagogic art her expression, nevertheless, the borders between joy in the picturesque and longing for death are fluent, so that the black romanticism cannot be separated here clearly from the main current of the romanticism. However, the exhibition "black romanticism of Goya to Max Ernst" the from September, 2012 to January, 2013 in the Frankfurt Städel museum counts beside in the title Called among other things Johann Heinrich Füssli in England, Caspar David Friedrich and Carl Blechen in Germany, the Swiss Arnold Böcklin, the Norwegian Edvard Munch to the painter's representatives of the black romanticism characterised as a mentality, but also to cinematic works like The tired death (Fritz Lang), Nosferatu (FOLLOWING W. Murnau), Dracula (death Browning) or Vampyr of Carl Theodor Dreyer, photographs (e.g., from Brassaï), sculptures (e.g. Works of Paul Dardé, Jean Joseph Carriès, Christian Behrens) and operas like the free shooter of Carl Maria von Weber found here consideration.
At the end of the 18th century the shower literature (Gothic Novel) develops in England as own style direction. Is strongly influenced by this English poetry kind romantic Roman Nachtwachen whom Ernst August Friedrich Klingemann publishes in 1804 under his pseudonym "Bonaventura". From the black romanticism and shower literature again the modern horror literature developed in the 19th century.
The listing of the following main motives of the black romanticism happens in the order of the approximate oppression degree from "easily" (on top) to "strongly" (below).
Longing, window motive, wanderlust, escapism, travelling motive, travelling desire
Nature (e.g., footpaths, mountains, caves, deep waters, dark woods, lonesome clearings; but also symbolic-laden animals, plants and natural phenomena like fog, moonlight, thunderstorm)
Walls (e.g., castles, cloisters, dungeons, cellar vaults, Gruften, Spukhäuser, artificial ruins, ruin architecture, cemeteries, false cemeteries)
Church, theology, religion, but also religious doubt and philosophy
Mythical figures (e.g., elves, fairies, ghosts, Wiedergänger, demons, form converters)
The Femmes fatal
Parawissenschaft, parapsychology, alchemy, magic, necromancy, occultism, satanism, witchcraft
Paraphile eroticism, sadomasochism, perversion
Drugs (e.g., alcohol, opium, morphine, mushroom essences, animal elixirs)
(Nightmare) dream and reality
Melancholy, depression, resignation, desperation, longing for death
Hysteria, obsession, insanity