29-04-2014, 14:57PrintA mentality is called in the history of literature realism in the 19th century. As a time span it is given about from 1848 to 1890. The period of the German history of literature between 1850 and 1898 is called often also „middle-class realism“ or „poetic realism“.
The realism wants to observe the tangible world objectively. Nevertheless, he limits himself not only to the bare description of the reality, but tries to return this artistically. Besides, the author or narrator may not become recognizable.
The realism as an epoch of the e-books is settled in the period between 1848 and 1890. As a manner of writing the realism is included in all epochs of all literatures, mainly in the drama and epic. This applies to the tragedies of Euripides, the comedies of Aristophanes, the Roman satires, the novellas and Schwänke of the late Middle Ages and the Renaissance, the dramas of Shakespeare and the baroque scoundrel's fiction. Mental processes showed for the first time the first representatives of the psychological novel, under it the Madame de La Fayette, Henry Fielding and Samuel Richardson, realistically. In the literature theory the concept since Friedrich Schlegel and Schiller plays a role, and also for the novel of the 19th century he was very significant.
The epoch concept refers above all to the English, Russian, French, German and American ebook. The concept in this context was stamped by Jules Champfleury by his article collection with the title Le réalisme (1857).
However, the concepts „middle-class realism“ or „poetic realism“ restrict the semantic field of the realism, while they particularly stress certain draughts and signs.
Demarcation to the naturalism
Naturalism and realism have the same poetologische basis: In the programmatic literature of both directions it is demanded that the writer should illustrate the recognizable world. But in works of the realism the negatives are not shown, but are excluded in favour of a higher, ideal idea, while the naturalism is designed to incorporate exactly of these negatives and to return in detail. This can be led back on the fact that the naturalism returns the external reality (with all her facets), while the realism tries to show the internal truth and to bank poetically.
Not only in the romanticism, also in the superficially naturalistic stamped realism empty places are uncovered in the progressive model immanent, secular and reality in direction free of metaphysics and are picked out as a central theme. The naturalism believes in the positivistischen sciences in which limitation of the person by inheritance and social environment and thinks that one can calculate the behaviour of the people from it. The realism shows an ideal picture more subjectively to human autonomy. Naturalism should show social reality without palliation, therefore, the wretched living conditions of the proletariat were a popular subject which should be returned in the texts in detail. This went stylistically so far that noises were shown in the texts phonetically, as for example rain as "plätscher, plätscher".
In the realism (particularly in the German realism e-books) above all the life of the bourgeoisie was treated and transfigured. It should be no criticism of the society or of the environment, but an aesthetization and with it a transfiguration. Therefore, the realism is not called in Germany by chance „poetic realism“.
However, the naturalistic world view prevents by no means, possibly in Fontane's ballad The bridge in the Tay or with the novella of The mould riders a return of the mythical in an apparently durchrationalisierten world which demonstrates their danger and ebook. With the mould rider this is done in this respect on the point, as a Hauke to sharks when technology-attached reconnaissance plane itself becomes the Wiedergänger.