E-books

28-04-2014, 13:06Print
One calls literary language (also language of the literature, literary language or Dichtersprache) a kind of speech within a language which differs by a row from signs from the other written language of other text types ("everyday literature", i.e. newspaper texts, instructionss, recipes etc.).

The differences to other varieties of a language are based in the first line on the special function of the literature: Hence, their language must serve not efficiently the purpose-engaged communication and be unambiguously understandable, but fulfils primarily aesthetic functions. Hence, here exists in a lot of „poetic freedom“.

Language of the verbal national epic
A Dichtersprache in the narrower sense is orally handed down special rules subject language of oral cultures which often contains also a special kind of the talk in the form of a speech song, a melody or certain intonations (cf. epic).

Examples are the northern Dichtersprache which was also taped later in Iceland (see Skalde) which existed, however, already before, the Old-Arabian Dichtersprache in the preislamic time which was held on in Early-Islamic time in writing (see Hafiz) or the Old-Indian Dichtersprache. The Celtic bards also maintained a Dichtersprache.

Dichtersprachen there also is even today in oral cultures, possibly in Africa where they are maintained by certain singers (Griots) who can many long poems by heart and with certain opportunities report. The Dichtersprache of the West-African Yoruba "Ibeji" is called; she stands after her origin in narrow respect with the traditional twin's cult.

Transmitted Dichtersprachen sometimes exist orally still long after development of a written culture further, often in the form of the traditional folk song. Thus an old Greek was discovered still in the 20th century who could report a long folk song whose text one knew till then in the almost same form only from medieval manuscripts.

Also the tradition of the material of the Nibelungenlieds is hardly conceivable without existence of a Germanic Dichtersprache, because it describes partly rather exactly historical events which took place 700 years before and from which one hardly owned knowledge from other springs at the moment of the written fixation of the epic.

One calls inter or multicultural literature today the ebook of the authors who write from a perception stamped by at least two cultural rooms. She is also recordable as a literature of the cultural syntheses. Intercultural ebooks are a component of the national literatures. As such she treats also identity questions of national or cultural minorities within a majority society like vice versa the selfconstitution of the majority towards all "other". In the end, every text thereby has an intercultural aspect.

Multicultural literatures of the German-speaking space
Cultural diversity is a basic moment of German culture and history: In the Middle Ages Roman, Celtic, Germanic and Slavic, pagan, Christian and Jewish traditions met and had an effect in different measure on German-speaking texts. Foreign-language texts originated with priority since the 18th century in areas with Sorbian, Lithuanian or (since the Polish divisions) of Polish population, in the territories of the Habsburgs also into Hungarian, Czech and other Slavic languages. Since this time German-speaking ebook develops in productive exchange or differing demarcation. [1]

The population movements of the 20th century brought a huge number of cultural changes with themselves in whose train also new intercultural ebooks originated. To at the moment most important among them belong the newer German Turkish literature and the German Arabian e-book. The German Jewish e-book shows a special case, because the name of this e-book would have to go out as an inter or multicultural e-book from two given separate cultural rooms and therefore the spin-off German Jewish from the German culture extrapolates. In any case, would be to be gone out from a sensitive reading of the single works.

e-book of migrants
In connection with the working migration after the Second World War came from 1955 future authors of new-originating multicultural e-books at first primarily from Turkey, Italy, Spain, Portugal, Yugoslavia and Greece to the German e-book location. This big subrange of the German-speaking multicultural e-book in the 20th century, the ebook of migrants which originated in the first phase of the newly developing migration in the German-speaking space was called first foreign worker's ebook. She went back to the German communist tradition of the working-class ebook in the Weimar republic, had a combative motivation and some of her authors were really foreign workers. According to the fact that the working migration finishes in the real sense in 1973 by an Anwerbestop, on the other hand, the "foreign workers" remained, new names asserted themselves in the 1980s for the ebook which was created by non-German-speaking authors and female authors in the federal republic, in Austria and Switzerland. The concept Migrant's e-book should take the external-literary fact into account that her authors are (migrated) in the German-speaking space pulled, other generalisations were not intended.

The number of the authors and female authors belonging to this category is unsafe, a careful estimate for 2000 amounts to about 250 people (cf. coach mine Gino Chiellino, in 2000). The fact that this number is unsafe and variable, lies with the exceptionally dynamic character of the phenomenon itself. Migrant's e-book is understood in times of the increasing global mobility of the people in increasing and seen on a global scale it concerns far higher figures. e-book of the second and third immigrant generation, often a little appropriately also as a migrant's e-book called, is not included, on this occasion, at all with.

e-book of the cultural syntheses
How already the German Jewish e-book was a e-book of a German Jewish cultural synthesis, a cultural synthesis is since the 1990s also increases in the e-book of the immigrants homely become in Germany and her descendants to ascertain.

Authors of intercultural e-book in the German-speaking space come from all countries and cultures from which people within this e-book location live. Reasons for this, just as little like the countries of origin and origin languages of the authors or the choice of her literary language, are for the consideration of the e-book by Se of lower meaning. It can also concern people who come from areas in which they belonged to a German-speaking minority. A young German Jewish e-book belongs to the very far touching concept of the German-speaking multicultural e-book, as well as the works of a German Russian-Jewish writer like Kaminer or representative of the German Arabian e-book like Schami.

Adoption
The local German adoption went out from the institute of German as foreign language (DaF) at the Ludwig's Maximilians university in Munich. Particularly exerted themselves here Irmgard Ackermann and Harald Weinrich from the end of the 1970s for the perception, revaluation and spreading of the e-book written by migrants. Many authors were promoted by Goethe-Institute, and still the only literary prize played by her participation in the creation of the Adelbert-von-Chamisso-Preises, from 1985 and the Bavarian academy of the nice arts for German-speaking e-book of national minorities, an important role. From the rows of the migrants coming, particularly the writer and e-book specialist Carmine Gino Chiellino is to be mentioned. Only and in cooperation with other e-book specialists Chiellino overviews and bibliographies has worked out to the modern German-speaking immigrant e-book from her beginnings up to 2000 and has influenced the scientific discourse in this area decisively with.

From the 1980s MA theses and theses started to originate at colleges and universities in Germany and in non-German-speaking countries on the subject "multicultural e-book". Some important ones of it which deal from a general perspective with the subject.

Problematic names
Certain areas of the multicultural e-book were booked in her history sometimes with more or less problematic concepts:

Foreign worker's e-book
The concept Foreign worker's e-book called in the 1970s and 1980s the e-book which was created by foreign authors in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. The term leans upon the fact that one has got from 1955 working migrants in big number in the German-speaking countries and called this foreign worker.

The authors and female authors of the foreign worker's e-book were on no account already descended at the beginning only from her rows. This external-literary criterion to the description of e-book also stood from the outset under critical observation. From the rows of the authors particularly the theoretically leading members of the PoLiKunstvereins which existed from 1980 to 1987 came along for this name strongly. These were Franco Biondi, Rafik Schami, Jusuf Naoum and Suleman Taufiq, in a footnote to her e-book of the dismay. Remarks to the foreign worker's e-book to the irony of the name pointed. One would not ordinarily let guests work, remained also guests not so long as the foreign workers who sat down in increasing measure in the country instead of leaving again it after a shorter time, how originally on the part of the industry and politics planned.

As a sign of a foreign worker's e-book the fact was valid from the point for the initial German adoption that it was created by foreign-language authors in German as a foreign language. However, an enlarged view of the things also encloses into different foreign languages resulted e-book translated into German then of migrants and e-book of migrated authors from German-speaking minorities of the most different countries.

Migrant's e-book
Migrant's e-book is one of the newer concepts which are used to call the e-book which is created by authors and female authors who themselves are migrated or together with her parents in an at first foreign country. With the change of the place of residence a linguistic change and/or a nationality change walks along with these authors mostly. The concept is partly congruent with the concept Foreign worker's literature without assuming, nevertheless, an affiliation of the authors to the layer of the workers. Only the migration is focused in the concept Migrant's literature. Also this concept is not indisputable within the relevant literature research and finds at the same time with several other use.

A special case of the migrant's literature is the exile literature. In her influence of the exile-giving country is to be put out not seldom, but often the works are also marked independent of the place of residence only of the authors by exile and cannot be subsumed, hence, in any case, under the multicultural literatures. Nevertheless, the crossings between emigration, exile, Remigration and wide migration are biographic as well as thematically often fluent, and not few exile texts plumb the space between the cultures.

Bridge literature
With his work „west-eastern divan“ was Johann Wolfgang von Goethe one of the first prominent representatives of the bridge literature. In this work Goethe with the Persian writer Hafi honoured by him produces himself; this, however, only in spirit, because Hafes lived good 400 years before Goethe. The known saying „of God is East / God is the Occident / north - and southern area / Rests in the peace of his hands“ can be valid as a motto of the function of bridge literature: he refers to a perception of the people as same and equal.

Two authors have reflected upon the being of the bridge literature: Zafer Şenocak and Hamid Reza Yousefi Şenocak understands under this in 1986 a genre of authors who belong "to several societies and itself with this position put apart" [2]. The concept "Bridge literature" is used in 2011 once more in the autobiographic sketch "thorn fields" of the German Iranian philosopher Hamid Reza Yousefi. At the end of his prologue he writes, his work wants be „Goethe honourary, bridge literature to see a slide-logical form, the other and to search a notification with him.“ [3] both authors maintain a genre which wants to create connections, nevertheless, for Yousefi Bikulturalität is no compelling condition. Their object is the representation of the experience of authors who move between several cultures. Such the literary look at both areas occurs through multicultural, trans-cultural as well as intercultural experiences from a several times reflected perspective.

Aim
The aim of the bridge literature is to hit bridges of the recognition and the notification between the cultures of the world. Moreover belongs the clarification about other cultural areas just as the perception of the new, own living space. Besides, is maintained on no side unconditional approval with people or circumstances, but a critical-constructive view of the things, the stereotypes and prejudices are exposed. The intention of the bridge literature which goes over the reflecting process and ripe process of people is to be arranged in the didactic scale.

Subjects
Thematically bridge literature treats all areas of the life in which people move between the cultures like social sphere, work, study. Because the authors are often travellers between different countries, migration destinies and experiences are often shown in the process of integration. Even if quite early authors have dealt over and over again with the topic, occurred during the migration movements after the Second World War, in particular after the immigration of foreign workers with Islamic background, a Renaissance of the genre.

Demarcation to other genres of bilingual authors
A clear demarcation of all literary products of bilingual or multicultural authors is connected with difficulties, because numerous literary works are characterised by overlapping and mixture. Thus the text kinds which help themselves of the stylistic means of the parody are often arranged under‚ humor, satire‘ or‚ entertainment’, while biographies are counted to the biographic genre. From meaning is the separation of the bridge literature of the so-called booming since the 1990s‚ veil ebook‘ which acts about the problems of mixing marriages and the martyrdom of deprived of rights women, mainly from Islamic or Black-African cultural areas. In these as well as other kinds so-called‚ pursuit ebook personal tragedies are often generalised or a binary manner of writing is shown in the form of black-and-white painting. Such literary works run to the character to act as‚ bridge‘ between the cultures, opposed.

Other
A huge number next partly also of survived name possibilities like foreign ebook, literature from the outside, literature from the inside, little ones or other literature reflects the difficulty of the literature to name the phenomenon of the multicultural or intercultural ebook also in his numerous facets appropriately.

Since 2000 the concept inter or multicultural literature has asserted itself beside migration literature increasingly. Miscellaneous scientist define the affiliation to one or other category in each case differently and the discerning nuances are not often especially clear. Basically both concepts are covered rather to content criteria than on the sociocultural and biographic context of the works, besides, the concept intercultural literature stronger stresses the affiliation of the works to a more enclosing – not on migration agreed – literary discourse. The concept Migration literature stresses against it the sociocultural discourse and the topic of the migration.

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