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The publication list is a listing of all scientific publications (publications) of a person or institution. Publication lists serve the summaryy documentation of own work with scientists.

Overview
In the international scientific area it is laid on extensive publications on scientific circumstances and results of the research special value. The publications should be effected preferentially in internationally respectable technical periodicals. With the publication list own research experience is proved and the scientific Excellency is documented. The relevance of the scientific achievements is often measured by means of the deer index which is a measure of the e-book of the publications of an author.

The publication list is significant as an appendix to a scientific curriculum vitae or as an appendix to application papers for third means, scholarships and with other teaching applications and research applications.

Construction
The construction of a publication list is not genormt. Current conventions have passed away from field to field a little bit. Thus the list is often divided in arts fields into the main groups Original works (Papers), overview works (Reviews) and books / book contributions. In other fields finer divisions are usual perhaps, e.g. because also publications have rank in conference volumes considerable (however, other) because is published interdisciplinary or because also other forms of the publication than only examined articles or monographs should be documented.

Inverse-chronological order (the latest entries first) is more current than chronological ones. Also the construction of the single entries is not fixed. In principle, offers to use one of the formats which are also usual in the publications even to the reference to literature places. Because, however, in publication lists clenched the same authors appear over and over again and annual figures play an emphasised role, one also often finds other orders of the information, e.g.:

Title of the publication
Information to (with) authors
Publication year
Publication place: Book, magazine, journal, conference etc.
Detailed data like expenses numbering, page numbers
Publication reference: Publication entry; ISBN etc.

A town library, also town library, is a public library when bearer (as a rule also owner) a town acts as a public law authority.

As opposed to most other public libraries, in particular land libraries, the entertainment section is also strongly coined in town libraries beside material literature and technical literature. Beside the job to make available to her citizens, books or magazines to the lending a town library can also collect increasingly regional-related or town-related works (see regional library). Another main focus of the work in town libraries is the reading support for children and youngsters. The offer often is rounded by a connected Caféteria.

Also foreign-language literature is often to be found, even if mostly in low extent. Also many town libraries after the print media book and magazine / newspaper have developed by the offer of E-Books, films (e.g., on video tapes or DVD videos), plays or CDs and CD-ROMs to media bars.

Also as a meeting place or venue public libraries are often used. An important centre is mostly he or a public library, besides, computer workstations are often usable against payment.

Now and then town libraries lend her works only to own citizens to hand over the mostly scanty resources only these what can be argumentative in particular with satellite towns or satellite municipalities whose citizens, also take part with her buying power, also in the urban life. A compromise is achieved if there is a regulation with regard to the administrative district or the region. The library identity card which is connected to the OPAC system offers an increasingly used possibility.

A special form of the town library are driving libraries who can start single parts of town at firm times or act in rural areas as a substitute with a town library.

Duties of public libraries
Media for education and continuing education and occupation
free access to information
Media to the entertainment and leisure activities
Support of the competence of information and media competence
Place of the local culture
Learning place
Place of the meeting and communication

In the broader sense is every library which lends books, a public library, in the narrower sense concerns it around economic companies who make available a book for a defined period against a certain fee. It is a not more common form today of the commercial book rental company.


Inside J. See Nordmeyer'schen public library in Hannover 1886
The public library originated like the reading societies during the clarification to overcome the discrepancy of buying power and reading interest. She had an important function for the literature care, because it was used by nearly all social layers. After continuance, size and audience different types developed. The pure lending institution which was mostly led by a bookstore, often together with a reading circle, more seldom in the main company was dominant. The supplies swayed between some Hundred books in "corner public libraries" up to several ten thousands in big institutions. As new organisation forms developed in the second half of the 19th century of the "novelties-reading circles" and the "literature institute". In the "novelties-reading circle" the books came to circulation quite anew, were sold after the first use tracks antiquarianly and were not marked as lending books. In the German empire attained „Fritz Borstell's reading circles“ which the Nicolaische bookstore founded in Berlin in 1864/65, a market-dominating position, in Austria the „literature institute Ludwig & Albert Last“ in Vienna and in Great Britain in 1842 from Charles Edward Mudie in London founded "Mudie's Select Library" which enclosed at the end of the 19th century already more than seven million volumes.


The newest novel. A picture from the public library of Ernst Hausmann, in 1880
If the public libraries put on her supplies at first often encyclopaedically, the big deals also concentrated after 1815 increasingly upon light reading. Before the amount of the newspaper novel and still decades ago the public library was a condition of a wide novel literature. Novels were produced in a great measure for public libraries in small editions and for high prices. The "bread articles" of the public library are were the genres of the trivial literature, in the Goethe's time therefore the family fiction, minds fiction, robber fiction and chivalrous romances. Beside the successful authors were represented then principal like the novelists respected today of the home and foreign countries quite completely. In her supplies the fashion waves can be read in the light reading.

The number of the public libraries in Germany amounted in 1865, 617 and rose till 1880 on 1056. At the end of the 19th century it came to a crisis of the lending book trade which resulted from a bundle of factors. The press, became the main competitor according to French model narrative literature increasingly in the feuilleton first-published. Besides, since the stitched classic's booklets (Meyer, Reclam) good literature was affordable for each; novel newspapers, cheap novel rows, trashy novels and notebook fiction made the purchase of light reading in all layers possible. Propaganda for the „good book“ and polemic against the lending reading accompanied the removal of the public librarianship in the course of the reading hall movement since end of the 19th century.


Catalogue of the public library of the department store Tietz in Cologne of 1914 with books into six languages
During the last years of the Weimar republic the public libraries "without security" or "modern" spread out. In 1932 there were from 10,000 to 18,000 book loaners; the trade was overmanned, the competition pressed the lending fees. To the protection of interests and regulation of the trade 1932/33 own institutions developed: the „imperial association of German public libraries“, the „union of the publishers interested in the lending librarianship“ - to all at the head of Wilhelm Goldmann with his crime films - as well as the professional group „The German public library trade“ within the bookseller's guild, the representation of the Sortimenter. With the classification in the cultural politics of the third empire there walked along a revaluation and renovation of the trade which was of interest by his broad effect to the National Socialists. The integration of the public libraries in the imperial literature chamber brought a restriction of the companies and the appointment of least lending fees. Under the national socialism like under allied occupying the supplies were 'cleaned'. Because the stock market association of the German book trade conceded to the lending booksellers no full membership, the trade (in 1960 about 28,000 lending places) united after the Second World War again in own organisation, the „German lending bookseller's association“ (in 1960-1973).

The decline started with the spreading of the television and the triumphal procession of the paperback after the middle of the 1950s. However, the company figures remained a long time high because great loaners furnished massively rental company places in shops new to the trade. Beside books from the normal publishing company book trade - to a cross section by the offer of the book clubs - the public libraries in the Federal Republic of Germany led above all the production of special lending book publishers. The main part of the supplies existed of "women's fiction" (Dear, nobility and castle fiction, doctor fiction and home fiction among other things) ; crime films, science fiction fiction and western counted to the "man's fiction". In the GDR private-economic public libraries were regulated from the 1950s and were suppressed. As opposed to the 18th and 19th century ran the literary communication process which the public libraries organised in the 20th century extensively partitioning from the literature-critical public.

Modern public libraries often work with Leihezwang.

The librarianship is the totality of all institutions and organisations of libraries and comparable facilities. To the librarianship also belong the practical use of structure and organisation, specified library types, library unions, work routines, education and technologies.

The science theoretically dealing with the librarianship is the library science.

Library science is the systematically regular perfect example of all scientific and technical experiences in the area of the librarianship in the other sense.

In the German language area it was distinguished between the library apprenticeship (Bibliothekonomie, library technology, also librarianship in the narrower sense) which acts from the equipment and management of a library and the library customer (Bibliothekographie) which deals with the history and description of the single libraries of older and newer time.

In connection with the development of a so-called knowledge society the focus of the library science moves increasingly in the „virtual space“. (Headword: Digital library) the object of the field are not any more only the library than physical place as well as her supplies as it was the case, but in general logistic of information processes (collection, development, Verfügbarmachung) from published information primarily within the scope of library apprenticeship and library customer.

Research and education
The job of the field is the capture and analysis of developments in the area of the distribution of information as well as on this basis the development of methods and theories to the care of information (primarily in the science). Besides, statistical procedures of the Bibliometrie and Szientometrie (and partly of the Webometrie) also play an increasing role.

Furthermore win within the scope of the so-called "flood of information" or "flood of information" by an ebook of big data amounts, especially also in electronic nets, aspects of the judgement and protection of quality of information within the field in meaning.

The library science owns a high interdisciplinary potential on account of her research object.

While the library science is an approved university discipline as Library-and information Science, for example, in the USA, this could not set up in Germany properly. Beside the education and continuing education in advanced technical colleges (in the advanced technical college of Cologne, the advanced technical college of Potsdam and in Leipzig HTWK) with which the main focus on the practise lies there is the field only in the institute of library science and science of information of the Humboldt's university to Berlin and the faculty information and communication at the college of the media Stuttgart. Moreover, the theoretical education of many library trainees takes over the library academy of Bavaria in Munich.

In Switzerland the university of Zurich together with the central library of Zurich offers a master of Advanced Studies (postcertificate study) in library sciences and sciences of information. Moreover, there is a master course of studies at the Humboldt's university to Berlin. To the master study it was registered in the institute of library science and science of information of the Humboldt's university to Berlin for the first time in the winter semestre in 2008/09.

Also interesting ebooks:
Science of information
Documentation
Lexicography
Education
Information
Science main entrance b2i
Autoptische Bibliography

One understands by documentation the utilisation of information about the other use. The aim of the documentation is to make laid down information (documents) straight discoverable in writing or in other manner permanently. Documents in this sense can be specialist books, magazine articles or other block letters, but also archive alien, pictures, films, sound recordings and similar. Also academically upraised data can be treated for the purposes of a documentation.

The development of information is one of the essential duties of libraries and other documentation facilities. In libraries the cataloguing of these publications is carried out for the development anew of acquired publications, i.e. the publications are put down on the library catalogue. This happens as a rule taking into account sets of rules (e.g., RAK or AACR) and with the help of Dokumentationssprachen and other controlled Vokabularien. Besides automatic procedures of the information Retrieval are used more and more often.

One calls the information ascertained by documentation about an object Metadaten.

In the librarianship it is distinguished between formal development and material development. While the formal development limits itself to the (objective) formal criteria of an object, the material development on his contents comes.

Project management and software development
Documentation means project management and software development in the areas to document all steps and measures. Aims: Traceability and learning effects.

Journalistic documentation
In films and on the radio a journalistically processed report which raises claim to non-fictionality, on relation to the real world help of springs and reports is called with documentation. In documentary films and radio feature programmes it comes to a mixture of explicatory and telling elements. Besides, crossings are possible in two directions. To the one the documentary genres tend to the aesthetic-artistic area, away from the pure instructional film or school radio. To the other there is also a crossing to the entertainment area and also the borders are crossed to the fictionality ("Doku-Soap").

In print media one speaks of a documentation if an original document is returned completely or in extracts. One calls the imbedding of short extracts from original documents in a journalistic text against it quotation.

High-class signs
Some high-class signs of documentation are: Completeness, clarity, intelligibilit, Strukturiertheit, correctness, Editierbarkeit, traceability, integrity / authenticity (e.g., change history), objectivity

A documentation contains - beside the real contents - the following information:

unequivocal allocation to a process
responsible process owner
Date and signature of the change
Decrease note of the process owner with date and signature
more officially topical state of the document: Date and link
List of the arrangements with links
Problems
A basic problem of the documentation is that it can become very costly and pays off only after a preterm economically, which is why many enterprises renounce own documentation department.
Hence, with "sound-recordings only to the documentation" one falls back on the cheapest means; also the soloist is selected afterwards. This leads necessarily not enough to satisfactory results.

Etymology
Paul Otlet stamped at the beginning of the 20th century the concept Documentation as the collection, order and utilisation of documents of all kind.

The procedure documentation to GoBS serves to be able to prove that the demands of the code of commercial law (HGB), the tax code and the GoBS are fulfilled for the safekeeping by data and documents.

Also for certain branches there is, regardless of the HGB standards, default for the production of procedure documentations, thus, e.g., for the pharmaceutical industry after part FDA 11 and GxP (GMP, GLP good lab practise). For the production of technical documentations the norm is EN 82079 the basis.

Procedure documentation to GoBS
The legal basis for the production of a procedure documentation arises from §239, §257 HGB from which the following demands for archiving business documents, are derived in paper as well as for electronic archive systems:

Ordinal moderation
Completeness
Security of the whole procedure
Protection from change and falsification
Protection before loss
Use only by beneficiaries
Observance of the periods for safekeeping
Documentation of the procedure
Traceability
Prüfbarkeit
The real document with the default on the subject Procedure documentation are the principles of proper DV of supported accountancy systems (GoBS).

The procedure documentation describes the whole organizational and technical process

the origin (capture),
the indexing,
the storage,
to unequivocal finding again,
the security against loss and falsification and
the reproduction of the archived information,
according to commercial right and default according to tax law must be kept.

Extent and construction of a procedure documentation are not prescribed. Qualitatively enough and completely is the procedure documentation if an independent third can check the proper application of the solution on the basis of the documentation.

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