30-04-2014, 16:06PrintA library or library is a service equipment which makes available media to her users. These media can contain information (as for example non-fiction ebooks) or the entertainment serve (as for example music CDs).
Access and the use are mostly free and free, borrowings against a low annual fee possibly. Most libraries are financed with tax money, but also church, public law and private organisations as well as enterprises maintained libraries.
Central service of the libraries is the lending of media. Some libraries also offer support with the publication of own texts or teaching materials (for example, as a publishing company of a university or about supply of infrastructure for the E-Learning), the apprenticeships of competence of information (mostly in scientific libraries) or support of reading competence (mostly in public libraries). The central operations are the acquisition and segregation of media as well as the cataloguing of media, the activities in the library magazine and the lending place.
Today beside printed media (how to books and magazines) more and more libraries offer also digital media (like E-Books, DVDs or electronic magazines) and dispose of digital libraries accessible on the Internet.
Word origin and definition
With movable rolling shelves like here in the magazine of the library of the University of British Columbia is saved place, in 2012.
The word "Library" was taken over from the Greek. Already in the antiquity called the word a "book box" (as a container for papyri) or a "collection of books". Ebook "library" was introduced in 1658 by Johann Amos Comenius from the Dutch ebooks.
Within the library-scientific literature the concept "Library" was defined often and differently. Ebook an often cited definition comes from Gisela Ewert and Walther online book: „The library is an equipment which collects published information for the users under archival, economic and synoptischen points of view, orders and available makes e-book.“
→ main article: Library kinds
The division of libraries orders itself with the help of the most different criteria. The most familiar division is in public e book libraries for the wide population and scientific libraries (WB) who are accessible though also publicly, but are aimed especially on the needs by scientists and students.
Other criteria to the differentiation of libraries are, for example, the size of the library (one speaks possibly of one-man's libraries) or the respective collective main focus (possibly music libraries). Other criteria are the maintenance bearer (possibly company libraries, pencil libraries) and the function which comes up to a library (possibly national libraries, canton libraries, town libraries).
Income, issues and maintenance bearers
Libraries spend a multiple in him, what they by the charges of ebook which can earn supply of technical infrastructure (possibly photocopier) and smaller services. Under the issues the personnel expenditure forms the post biggest by far, the acquisition of new media follows this. Libraries are financed by the maintenance bearer. The most important maintenance bearer is the public authorities, and the alliance which finance countries as well as municipalities libraries. In addition bearers come like endowments of public right and bodies of the public right. An important library bearer in the German-speaking space is also the church, next are: Associations, enterprises, endowments of civil law and single people read ebooks.
The most important operations
Acquisition and Deakzession
The acquisition and segregation of media, the cataloguing of media and the lending of media count to the central operations of a library. In addition there comes the retro digitization of the available media and the support of reading competence and competence of information.
The acquisition serves the acquisition of new media. The German libraries have spent in 2012 about 399 million euros on the acquisition. In smaller libraries the acquisition is often carried out by one single librarian or, however, is coexamined, only besides, in bigger, own acquisition department mostly exists. After the acquisition the new entries are opened, put down i.e. on a searchable library catalogue. The contrary process for the acquisition with which superfluous media are selected is the Deakzession. Acquisition and Deakzession are called together now and then continuance construction, continuance management or continuance development. Within the scope of the acquisition the library continuance is increased not only by buyings, but also by deposit copies, donation, exchange and Lizenzierung. To make also rare books once per state available, libraries work together in acquisition cooperations.
Construction and expiry organisation
Up to the smallest possible ones libraries dispose – like other companies also – about a construction organisation which can be illustrated in an organisational chart. Even if this structure is not today long any more the only one, still many libraries are made up below the library management roughly of three traditional main departments.
The legislation is exercised by the alliance and the countries. For the administration of justice, primarily, the countries are responsible, only the uppermost courts are federal facilities. In Austria and Germany the municipalities are not obliged legally to maintain a library, in Finland, Denmark and Great Britain, however, already. In Germany the local libraries are mostly a part of the city administration, since the 1980-s the legal forms own establishment, ebooks und GmbH also, however, seem now and then. These are constituted under private law, however, are financed by the municipalities. In contrast to Germany and Austria there is in the USA a library support law, the Library of service and Construction Act of e-book.
Computer for the OPAC search in the library of the advanced technical college to boar's wood, in 2004
The facade rebuilt from 1970 to 1978 of the Celsus library in Ephesos
Stateroom in the Vatican broads apostolic library, in 2005
→ main article: Librarianship
The totality of all libraries forms the librarianship. The people working in a library are librarians and professional employee for media services and news services and the scientific discipline for the organisation and function of libraries and other facilities of information. The suitable education way is the library science. The trend of affairs in a library is called library management and optimising activities inwards and outside are called "library management".
In 2007 there were after the German library statistics in Germany 8.694 public libraries with a total of 10.365 locations. In the same period under review existed 243 scientific libraries who ordered more than a total of 791 locations.