29-04-2014, 15:48PrintA literary critic ebook is valued an observer mostly working as a journalist of the literature scene who analyses above all the new releases at the book market and is reported about that. He is (not always to be distinguished from the theatrical critic.
The best known German e-book literary critic of the 2nd half of the 20th century was Marcel Reich-Ranicki. He stands in the tradition of the theatrical critics.
The literary criticism or literature discussion as a field of the literature discussion makes it to itself on the basis of reviews the job to value works of the literature and to arrange. She discusses topical new releases, however, subjects also over and over again works far of older date to critical reassessments. Besides, she incorporates if necessary in comparisons the trends of national or / and international literatures in her discourses. (See moreover also under literature the segment: History of the discussion field)
To write a literary criticism can be used again synonymously among other things for writing a mono-graphic or essay-like treatise, for example, about the complete works of an author. Nevertheless, more often the formulation calls the literary criticism only appreciating a literary work which is also called literature review, book review, book review and book review.
Literary critics or reviewers of literary works feel standing often as in the service of the audience and/or the literature and value the works in view of implied or explicit criteria which argue if necessary like in the literature also with references to suitable literature theories. The separation usual into German between literary criticism and literature is coined in the anglo-saxon countries less, the concept common there literary criticism encloses both.
Prepared the German-speaking literary criticism became in the late 17. and early 18th century of the philological textual criticism which owed her suggestions to French thinkers like Pierre Bayle. Thus Johann Christoph Gottsched developed art of poetry (1730) a strict control poetics on whose basis the quality of literature should become judgeable in his attempt of a Critischen. In 1841 followed Johann Jacob Bodmers Critische Betrachtungen about the poetic Gemaehlde of the writers. E-book the achievement of literature theorists like Gottsched and Bodmer lies in the fact that they developed for the first time criteria by which literary criticism could orientate itself.
The following list claims no completeness, nevertheless, tries to name – sorted after their respective year of birth – at least some of the most important literary critics.
Literature reviews in the feuilleton
Calling the literature review in the feuilleton, also book review, book review or book review, is as a discipline of the literary criticism one of the best known forms most common up to now of the review. Thought for the general public, reviews of literary works are published in print media like newspapers, magazines and magazines, on broadcasting company and television as well as on the Internet. However, for special subject fields, e.g., child literature and young adult literature, straightened technical periodicals and subject magazines are also found in each case on it. Reviews of this kind serve for the orientation and classification of the yearly new-appearing titles, even if they can give attention only to one fraction of these new releases. A target group are beside the interested readership of books among other things also libraries.
Book reviews contain as a rule beside the bibliographic information (author, title, publishing company, price, year of publication, etc.) and the description of external signs (book cover kind, print format, illustrations etc.) an image of construction, contents and objective of the work, as well as a critical acknowledgment or judgement of the quality of the text. The book review can be written to the literary form and after the extent as an essay, the comprehensive book review which mostly only as either summarily being recommended or negative tip to a work gets on is very frequent nevertheless the rather scarcely held, hardly more than one, two sides.
Prozedere and expectations
According to size of a publishing company a certain portion of a book edition is included beside other advertising measures like spring prospectuses and autumn prospectuses for review copy and reading copies as well as flag expression. The order and distribution this itself by Se as an advertising material to understanding presentation copies occurs as a rule after the following pattern:
Mostly from three to four months before appearance of the spring programme or autumn programme the prospectuses are sent very exactly after interest situation coordinatedly to the editorial staff and the editorial staff preparatory work ends to freelances.
The freelances perform not seldom a large part of the preliminary work in prospectus sighting which every half-year can enclose according to interest area up to one third of shelve metre and more. They pass on her proposals to the editors who meet then a final choice with them and award suitable orders to them.
Then editors or / and freelances order flags according to urgency, these are not unbound and sometimes also from the author yet finally released pressure sides of the complete work, or the review copies from the finished edition. Reading copies differ in this respect from them when they are though already bound, are extended now and again, however, of divergent bandage quality, printing quality and paper quality or also by sides with information about author and work. Such reading copies are blocked not only editorial staff and freelances often even unsolicited, but also, nevertheless, to the booksellers, these are those titles from which the respective publishing companies hope for the biggest attention. So that review copies do not reach in free trade, they will provide in the inside part with a stamp. Nevertheless, they are offered in on-line trade, as for example with eBay, in big number.
After the titles were blocked either by the editorial staff or directly by the publishing company, finally, the reviewer begins with the often repeated reading of a book. She goes along with lacquering relevant passages to put this then with the second reading once again with the first overall impression in respect and to weight.
Because the length of a review is mostly line-exactly given, every reviewer must exactly consider, how much place he for the contents description which puts away contextual classification of the work and the evaluating commenting. Smaller inaccuracies must be "suppressed" thus under circumstances in favour of a positive overall impression – and vice versa.
The articles of the reviewers are blocked to the editorial staff and are edited there, checked i.e. for content and orthographic mistakes and are also shortened if necessary if the place is not sufficient in the pressure issue of a newspaper.
The review is published – or also not, not least because most print media puts away for the literature reviews during the last years less and less place. Therefore, the impression of a review can also be cancelled completely if her impression too far to the back has pushed. Nowadays in particular in newspapers a book may be given maximum one year, so that in addition one more review is published.
Changed weighting in the feuilleton
The feuilleton of the newspapers has carried out a noteworthy movement of the cultural achievements to be discussed during the last years. Had still at the beginning of the 20th century above all the critical consideration of the performances of theatrical stages and opera stages, from literature and pedagogic art priority, the discussion of films, telecasts, music admissions and audio books also set up within the scope of the progressive technical development, in addition. Now, besides, beside these "scions" of present art forms computer games and software Part of the feuilleton have also become. All this complication entailed a displacement which go currently above all zulasten of the literature, in particular from belles-lettres as well as child literature and young adult literature. If even the town magazines appearing weekly had still included in the plan several double pages for book reviews in the 70th of the last century immediately, it was reduced now mostly to the discussion of one single title per issue. The results are radical. If newspapers had to discover once the ambition unknown authors and to announce, today it often goes the reverse way: The titles and her authors are known either already since decades or must have been announced only by costly advertising measures - possibly on radio and television - so that her naming and argument is attractive for the respective feuilleton. This goes along with the behaviour of the readers who go more and more seldom to bookstores to leave good literature even to read e-book, but themselves on the recommendations of some television dimensions.
Another sign of the changed weighting of literature reviews in the feuilleton is more and more around reaching reduction of the line extent which runs short up to collective reviews and accepts with it also the loss of progressive critical salary. In them are not least discussed from editorial circumstances, like by the publishing company less and less for it put away place, several works of similar topic in the connection and are not valued if already comparative, thus at least to each other confronted.
Ethos of the literature review
Every form of secondary literature, so also the review, is contestable, there to the description very objectively to be returned of an object always also the commenting subjective view of the reviewer heard. Therefore, Ebook compiling of reviews challenges beside skill and professional knowledge always also such imponderabilities like morality, conscience and sense of responsibility. In the ideal case the reviewer loves the object of his consideration, is enabled highly educated and to comparisons, because he knows all actors and the objects of his area or subject possibly in theory and practise – not only from the present, but also from the past – and with it is able to draw if necessary even conclusions for future trends. In the period of bloom, possibly at the end of the 19th century till the 70th of the 20th century, writing of reviews or criticism was absolutely remunerative enough to be able to live on it. In those times the ethos was also spread in general to never be allowed to make itself common as a reviewer or literary critic with the subject of his consideration not to publish fiction or lyrical books so, e.g., as a literary critic at the same time – and at the same time (see segment on top) pioneers of German-speaking literary criticism as God-sweetly Ephraim Lessing absolutely also by independent works of the primary literature have distinguished themselves.
Not only the today's reality illustrates a grey area. Thus there were and gives at all times reviews whose hymns can have, however, also slatings or polemics an unfair background: This reaches from with publishing companies and authors in friendship of linked favour up to the personal lust for revenge. However, both extremes would be used, much too recognizably and much too often, fall back on the reviewer himself and question the struggle necessary for his concern around recognition of his competence and credibility ebook.
Because reviews can have substantial economic effects and are for authors often also the only recognizable echo of her work, the disregarding or the non-discussion of a book is felt by them, in any case, far bad as a slating.
Because most, print media smaller in particular puts away for the literature reviews during the last years less and less place, their assessment scale narrows mostly on more or less explicit recommendations, while slatings and above all undecided discussions which appreciate positive like negative qualities of a work without striking from it an unambiguously positive or negative balance are hardly printed.
Present development of the literature review
The shorter the review is, the more it inclines either to the tip to the bare existence or to the cut back commenting of the discussed object. Short discussions require from reviewers a measure in compression which can be measured compared with the object only seldom and if be performed, then only under high temporal expenditure. Therefore, professional reviewers, provided that they are not themselves permanently employed journalists or even editors and produce this job, besides, withdraw more and more. This is valid in particular for professionally active freelances of a newspaper for which reviews are worthwhile because of the payment per line becoming more and more slightly hardly more.
To her place moved in particular in the area of the literature a group semiprofessional from journalist's view of reviewers which even, like already in the beginnings of the Rezensierens, authors are. Their motivation for writing of reviews explains not least itself by the possible participating in free review copies and the overview walking along current with it continuously of her interest area. Beside the possibility for the repeated study in the short form, usual naming of the author's name and the contact with a literature editorial staff is looked at the end of the reviews as an advantage. Even the mostly very low fee shows an extra income not to be despised for many free authors. If at least even something can be expected from the reviewers of such type to which often enough also teachers count in quality in the matter of style and contents, this is valid far less for an even cheaper reviewer's grouping which has set up above all on the Internet and could soon edge out also the semiprofessional reviewers. Reader's opinions or customer opinions which find a broader and broader forum in Internet main entrances specially reasonable for this are meant. What can often enough go through of the form, to the contents and after the contextual comparability hardly as a review, covers in these forums his advantage from the pure number in opinions to a work.
To the adoption of literature reviews
Reviews are as a part of the feuilleton again a part of the journalism, therefore as a rule only for one day (in French: le jour) present. Also in weekly magazines or monthly appearing magazines they are hardly read more than once. This fact absolutely corresponds with the character of a snapshot which such a review can only have, in the end. Not seldom that also famous critics revise a judgment grieved in her reviews about an author or a work years or decades later ebooks. The Internet with his archived data banks is about to change this validity for only one day at least concerning her availability, now, nevertheless, reviews are retrievable also by means of searching machines any time and theoretically for all future. Apart from some exceptions, as for example to the reviews Ludwig reads the ebook which seem worth reading also for themselves taken because of her perfectly shaped style still after more than hundred years reviews might be of interest after some time only (or, at least) to historian to the Zitationsanalyse of an opinion picture from a certain epoch.
How and whether a review is taken up, depends first of all on the interest situation of the reader. However, also the adjustment, the more or less emphasised imbedding in the respective medium and not least the quality of a review determine the spectrum of her perception which can reach from simple overlooked e-book up to the quotation in other media.